In many societies, professional orchestras serve cultural, educational, entertaining, and economic functions, and they aim high: they aim to be artistically excellent. Pursuing partly cultural, social and economic goals, orchestras are exposed simultaneously to respective institutional logics. These logics provide a framework for relevant actors (state, benefactors, audiences) to support orchestras. Changing logics coupled with drastic changes in audiences afford to classical orchestras the challenge of developing strategies in order to survive. While Germany with its high number of orchestras per habitants experiences particularly high pressure to walk new paths, strategic development will become a more urgent topic in other countries as well since each performance begs for recognition in the big and increasing panoply of culture, education, and entertainment. Based on historical developments and an empirical study of German audiences we discuss two directions for strategic development, here for orchestras in Germany: a) the combination of elements from different logics, and b) the development of audiences.
I will discuss in this article the dynamics of business groups, using the case of architects from three Transylvanian cities (Cluj-Napoca, Timisoara and Brasov with emphasis on Cluj-Napoca). The architecture companies successfully represent the current trends of company organization in dynamic contexts, generated by the market changes, where services become the most important products of large cities. Using a sample of 375 architectural companies from these cities that employ 616 persons, I outline a field model inspired by Bourdieu’s work. My argument is that the large number of actors in the architectural networks from Cluj-Napoca is explained by the different forms of educational, economic, social and politic capital mobilized to create competitive companies and to survive within an instable post-socialist economic environment. Moreover, the internal structure of network organization from Cluj-Napoca is based on the usage of different types of available capital.
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Agnieszka Szczepańska CDFMR and Katarzyna Pietrzyk CDFPMR
Author : W. Wójcik
The Old Town is the historic core of Morąg, and its boundaries correspond to the town’s boundaries in the mid 18 th century (buildings depicted in the town map of 1754 have survived to this day, Abridged Historical and Urban Case Study. Conservation Guidelines and Recommendations for the town of Morąg, 1993). In the east, the Old Town is flanked by the remnants of a historical fortified wall, and in the west it overlooks Rozlewisko Morąskie (Morąg Swamp). The historical Town Hall Building is the central point of the analysed district. The
relations that accompanied a patriarchal culture. In the English case, he could also ignore the problem of aboriginal minorities that have been significant in modern debates about citizenship, especially in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. The task facing citizenship studies after Marshall is to recognise the diversity of forms of citizenship and the specific problems of these different traditions and then to analyse whether any form of democratic citizenship can survive the social and economic changes associated with globalisation.
In modern theories of citizenship