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. Certain neighbourhoods of Luanda are very expensive, resembling some of the world’s most expensive cities, yet the poverty level is high and an estimated two-thirds of the people survive on very meagre incomes. Since 2002, the government has been enforcing evictions, while the demolition of poor areas to make way for shopping centres and gated condominiums for Angola’s elite has also been a recurrent theme ( Gastrow 2017 ). A high number of slums is currently still situated in the centre of the city. This is a specific and distinctive characteristic of Luanda in the

became more homogenous and orderly. Nowa Ruda Nowa Ruda and its square date back to 1442, when fairs and markets officially began to be organized ( Eysymontt 2009 : 432). The size of the square (85 x 65m) dominates the town and is well depicted on the lithography from 1736 by F. A. Pompejus ( Neurode aus der Vogelschau im Jahre 1736 , n. d.). The town centre was destroyed by fire in the 19th century and later rebuilt, surviving mostly in this state until today. Unfortunately, after the WWII the process of stagnation and gradual destruction began. According to the

distinguished by anything special. Their appearance resembled the idea of simplicity, ugliness, poverty and poor execution, although paradoxically many of these constructions have survived the numerous earthquakes that regularly haunt the city. The real wealth of the residential architecture of old Algiers is in the interior of the house. The vertical structure of buildings includes columns and brick arches ( Abdessemed-Foufa 2011 : 5) and various elements used to decorate the houses of the Casbah: wooden balustrades, decorated doors, capitals and ceramic tiles for floors and

commemoration and its narrative. Nevertheless, neither memory nor commemoration is a straightforward, simple, one-way road: both individual and collective memory is subject to constant reformulation, whereas a proliferation of commemorations and politics of remembrance explains why memorials have a difficult task when tempting to address the multiplicities of memories (if they wish to at all). Still, there are monuments, like the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, which have not only managed to survive various regimes, but - if one considers the millions of tourists who visit it each

returned to its former frame, and then moved about a hundred miles west. With each of these stages, the border of the Western world was also moving (...) but history also shows that arbitrary borders, albeit the most unstable, on the other hand, survive the most persistently in human consciousness precisely because of the representations they carry’ ( Gerva & Rose 2010 : 188). The greatest wave of pastelization has passed. With economic stabilization, the need for proving one’s progressive, full European identity to the West is slowly disappearing. As the necessity of

The Persistence and Interaction of Multi-Ethnic Settlement Remnants in The Cultural Landscape

The paper deals with remnants of multi-ethnic settlement: their form, interaction and persistence. In the past, the Podlasie region, situated in northeastern Poland, was an area of multi-ethnic settlement. The interaction of cultures brought the emergence of a new, borderland culture. As the years have passed, the memory of the sources of regional and local traditions has disappeared. Elements of ethnic and religious traditions have spread and survived in the material structures of the rural landscape.

The most significant traces of cultural interactions and at the same time the remnants of past landscape are high roadside wooden crosses with an additional small iron cross on their top, decorated with the crescent moon and sunbeams. The cross with half-moon has its beginnings in old Christian symbolism, regional history and tradition. The crescent was always accompanied by sunbeams and they meant sun and moon, day and night, Christ and Our Lady. Its material durability appears to be greater than the collective memory of the locals.

The roadside wooden crosses embellished with iron crescent cross are an interesting part of regional heritage. The symbol of the crescent was common here for all Christian inhabitants and Tatars, unifying all Podlasie people. This uniting symbol is the most valuable remnant of the interaction of multi-ethnic settlement in the cultural landscape of the Podlasie. These days, the 300 years of tradition falls into oblivion, but regional cultural heritage can be saved through tourism-related product and marketing. In peripheral, economically neglected areas like the study case, the remnants may become an impetus to develop the local economy through recreation and tourism. Furthermore, making new tourism products based on natural and cultural values can be a good opportunity to restore precious elements of the historical landscape.


This study develops an integrated innovation for malaria early warning systems (MEWS), based on vulnerability monitoring, seasonal climate variability data, and epidemiologic surveillance. The main aim of the study is to examine the relationship between intra-annual climate variability and malaria transmission in Nigeria. For this study, climatic conditions considered suitable for the development of the malaria parasite and its transmission through the mosquito stage of its life cycle are temperatures within the range from 18°C to 32°C. Below 18°C the parasite development decreases significantly, while above 32°C the survival of the mosquito is compromised. Relative humidity greater than 60% is also considered a requirement for the mosquito to survive long enough for the parasite to develop sufficiently to be transmitted to its human host stage. The research findings show that seasonality of climate greatly influences the seasonality of malaria transmission. Specifically, rainfall plays an important role in the distribution and maintenance of breeding sites for the mosquito vector. Rainfall and surface water is required for the egg laying and larval stages of the mosquito life cycle and monthly rainfall above 80 mm is considered a requirement. Also, it is temperature that regulates the development rate of both the mosquito larvae and the malaria parasite (Plasmodium species) within the mosquito host. Relative humidity and temperature play an important role in the survival and longevity of the mosquito vector. This study is in conformity with the findings of the IPCC (2001) that malaria is caused by four distinct species of the Plasmodium parasite, transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, which are most abundant in tropical/subtropical regions, although they are also found in limited numbers in temperate climates.

-067X(00)00014-3 Berghman, J. 1995: Social Exclusion in Europe: Policy Context and Analytical Framework. In: Room, G. editor, Beyond the Threshold: the Measurement and Analysis of Social Exclusion, Bristol: Policy Press, 19–28. Bleha, B., Vaňo, B. and Bačík, V. 2014: Demographic Atlas of Slovak Republic. Bratislava: Geografika. Bridger, S. and Pine, F. 1998: Surviving Post-Socialism: Local Strategiesand Regional Responses in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. London: Routledge. Brown, D. and Kulcsar, L. 2001: Household economic behaviour in Post socialist

making of reliable digital town maps. A case study: Zwolle, The Netherlands - in Spanish). In: Scripta Nova , Volumen VIII, Número 170(65), available at:, DoA: March 2012. Benavides, J. and Koster, E., 2006: Identifying surviving landmarks on historical maps. In: e-Perimetron , Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 194-208, available at: www.e-perimetron. org/Vol_1_3/Benavides_Koster.pdf, DoA: March 2012. Bielecka, E. and Ciołkosz, A., 2000: Zmiany użytkowania ziemi w dorzeczu Odry w świetle zdjęć satelitarnych i archiwalnych materiałów

:// Wallerstein, J.S. and Kelly, J.B. (2008). Surviving the breakup: How children and parents cope with divorce Basic books. Wallerstein J.S. Kelly J.B. 2008 Surviving the breakup: How children and parents cope with divorce Basic books Wilensky, H.L. (2002). Rich democracies: Political economy, public policy, and performance California: University of California Press. Wilensky H.L. 2002 Rich democracies: Political economy, public policy, and performance California University of California Press Wolfinger, R.E. and Rosenstone, S.J. (1980). Who Votes