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Introduction: Dissociative identity disorder, also known as multiple personality disorder, involves simultaneous manifestation of multiple alternative personalities in one human body. The disorder is still a puzzle to contemporary researchers. In comparison to the United States, where the detection rate of this disorder is growing, in Poland, it is still a niche issue, unknown to many scientists and clinicians. Rather alarmingly, this situation has remained the same for many years now.
Objective: The aim of the present study is to draw attention to the adaptive character of dissociative identity disorder as a defense mechanism in children who have experienced extremely traumatic events in early childhood. The work also sets itself the task of disseminating knowledge about multiple personality disorder in the Polish scientific community, with the hope of encouraging wider research in this area in Poland.
Material and Methods: To investigate this issue, we searched articles available in the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Polish Medical Bibliography (Polska Bibliografia Lekarska) databases for the years 1960–2018. The following search terms were used: multiple personality, dissociative identity disorder, dissociative identity disorder and children. On the basis of a meta-analysis of the available literature, we offer a general characterization of the disorder, describe its symptomatology, present several theories of its etiology and conclude it through the prism of its adaptive function.
Results and Discussion: From the analysis of the gather data, we can conclude that multiple personality disorder can be a broad variant of the child's defense mechanisms against extreme, traumatic events from childhood, which they try to cope with by creating alter personalities. Abused children create other representations of the Self to be able to rid themselves of suffering, a process that is necessary for them to survive and further develop mentally and physically.
Conclusions: There is no doubt that Polish research on this disorder is much needed. It could provide more information on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of multiple personality. In addition, a better understanding of the issue might bring us closer to the understanding of how the human mind works.
Joanna Luszczak, Michal Bartosik, Jolanta Rzymowska, Agnieszka Sochaczewska-Dolecka, Ewa Tomaszek, Joanna Wysokinska-Miszczuk and Anna Bogucka-Kocka
According to some studies, the Entamoeba gingivalis colonizing the gingival tissue is an important agent in bringing about periodontitis. Other studies, however, deem it an opportunist that is able to survive in the medium induced by periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Entamoeba gingivalis infection in patients from the Department of Periodontology, and compare this population with that of healthy people, so as to analyze the relationships between infection and patient sex and age. The result of this work is that in both groups, a correlation (p = 0,19) has been noted between the occurrence of amoebae and other diseases in the oral cavity. Indeed, 81,4% of all patients with some periodontal disease showed the presence of amoeba. Among those who are not afflicted with oral diseases, the presence of amoeba was indicated in 62,5% of the total. In addition, a correlation between the person's age and the presence of protozoa (p = 0,15) was strongly marked among women (p = 0,19). In the three age groups of women in this study (40-49, 60-69, and above 80 years), we observed a 100% presence of protozoa.
Our study leads us to the conclusion that infections with Entamoeba gingivalis should be regarded as an factor that is associated with the pathological changes occurring in patients with periodontal diseases.
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Sonia Elena Popovici, Ovidiu Horea Bedreag and Dorel Sandesc
The emergence of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter spp involved in hospital-acquired infections, once considered an easily treatable pathogen, is troublesome and an immense burden for the modern medical systems worldwide. In the last 20 years the medical community recorded an increase in the incidence and severity of these infections as therapeutic means tend to be less and less effective on these strains. The ability of these bacteria to rapidly develop resistance to antimicrobial agents by continuously changing and adapting their mechanisms, their ability to survive for long periods of time in the hospital environment and the multitude of transmission possibilities raises serious issues regarding the management of these complex infections. The future lies in developing new and targeted methods for the early diagnosis of A. baumannii, as well as in the judicious use of antimicrobial drugs. This review details the evolution of the pathogenicity of this microorganism, together with the changes that appeared in resistance mechanisms and the advancements in molecular testing for the early detection of infection.
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