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This paper takes issue with the lexicon of Old English and, more specifically, with the existence of closing suffixes in word-formation. Closing suffixes are defined as base suffixes that prevent further suffixation by word-forming suffixes (Aronoff & Furhop 2002: 455). This is tantamount to saying that this is a study in recursivity, or the formation of derivatives from derived bases, as in anti-establish-ment, which requires the attachment of the prefix anti- to the derived input establishment.

The present analysis comprises all major lexical categories, that is, nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs and concentrates on suffixes because they represent the newest and the most productive process in Old English word-formation (Kastovsky 1992, 2006), as well as the set of morphemes that has survived into Present-day English without undergoing radical changes. Given this aim, the data retrieved from the lexical database of Old English Nerthus ( comprise 6,073 affixed (prefixed and suffixed) derivatives, including 3,008 nouns, 1,961 adjectives, 974 adverbs and 130 verbs. All of them have been analysed in order to isolate recursive formations.

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The Transformations Of The Novelistic Canon: The Comparison Of Daniel Defoe’s And Penelope Aubin’s Dedication To Truth And Virtue


The aim of the article is to discuss the evolution of the concept of the literary canon in the context of eighteenth-century fiction. The concept of the literary canon has been traditionally associated with timeless, universal values which transcend the ideological conditions of the period in which texts are created. In present criticism, which is shaped by cultural studies, the association of a canon with universality has been challenged. A canon has been recognised by cultural critics as an instrument of an ideological power struggle which presents the values of dominant social groups as universal. The analysis of novels written by Penelope Aubin and Daniel Defoe at the beginning of the eighteenth century demonstrates that the study of literature only from an ideological viewpoint does not account for the workings of the literary canon. Both Aubin and Defoe employ the same formula of fiction, adventure story with a moral commentary, but while Defoe’s fiction has survived in literary histories, Aubin’s stories, after their initial success, fell into oblivion and have been rediscovered only recently by feminist critics. The varying fates of Aubin’s and Defoe’s fiction point to the insufficiency of the definition of canon which binds literary value too strongly with ideology.

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Medieval Multilingualism in Poland: Creating a Corpus of Greater Poland Court Oaths (Rotha)


In this paper we introduce the research plan for the preparation of a searchable electronic repository of the earliest extant legal oaths from medieval Poland drawing on the expertise in historical corpus-building developed for the history of English. The oaths survive in the overwhelmingly Latin land books from the period between 1386 and 1446 for six localities Greater Poland, in which the land courts operated: Poznań, Kościan, Pyzdry, Gniezno, Konin and Kalisz. A diplomatic edition of the oaths was published in five volumes by Polish historical linguists (Kowalewicz & Kuraszkiewicz 1959–1966). The edition is the only comprehensive resource of considerable scope (over 6300 oaths from the years 1386–1446) for the study of the earliest attestations of the Polish language beyond glosses. Recognising some limitations, but most of all its unparalleled coverage of the coexistence of Latin and the vernacular, the ROThA project embarks on transforming the edition into an open up-to-date digital resource. We thus aim to facilitate research into the history of Polish and Latin as well as of the legal system and the related social and linguistic issues of the period.

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Processes of Survival and Resistance: Indigenous Soldiers in the Great War in Joseph Boyden’s Three Day Road and Gerald Vizenor’s Blue Ravens

’s Three Day Road . Studies in Canadian Literature 35(1). 224–243. Vizenor, Gerald. 1978. Wordarrows: Indians and whites in the new fur trade . Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. Vizenor, Gerald. 1994. Manifest manners: Postindian warriors of survivance. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Vizenor, Gerald. 2006. George Morrison: Anishinaabe expressionist artist. The American Indian Quarterly 30(3–4). 646–660. DOI: 10.1353/aiq.2006.0034 Vizenor, Gerald. 2009. Native liberty. Natural reason and cultural survivance

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Polish Indian Hobbyists and Cultural Appropriation

York, NY: Oxford University Press. Vizenor, Gerald. 1998. Fugitive poses. Native American Indian scenes of absence and presence . Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Vizenor, Gerald (ed.). 2008. Survivance. Narratives of Native presence . Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Welch, James. 2001. The Heartsong of Charging Elk: A Novel . New York, NY: Anchor Books. Wojtaszek, Aleksandra. 2002. Polscy Indianie jako wspólnota kulturowa [Polish Indians as a cultural community]. Unpublished seminar paper. Kraków: Jagiellonian

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