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A New Original Conception in Rock Magnetism, Paleomagnetism and Geomagnetism: An Origin of the Reversed Magnetization of Rocks on Earth

Abstract

So far the field-reversal theory has been accepted to account for the reversed remanent magnetization (RM) of rocks on the Earth. Orlickỳ (2014) revealed a frequent occurrence of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) Fe-Ti oxides in the rocks. Now I have renamed these minerals as the Fe-Ti ferrimagnetic-antiferromagnetic chemical phases (Fe- Ti FriM-AFM ChPs). They may have either cubic spinel, or tetragonal spinel symmetry, respectively. They behave as the Fe-Ti polycrystalline materials. These Fe-Ti FriMAFM ChPs are the two sublattice A and B ChPs, with some specific magnetic behaviour. The titanomagnetite (Ti-Mt, Curie temperature, TC = 230 oC; FriM alignment) and the titanomaghemite (Ti-Mgh, Néel temperature, TN = 450 oC; AFM alignment) containing rocks have been identified as the representants of the the Fe-Ti FriM-AFM cubic spinel ChPs. The interactions with the magnetizing field, with the Weis molecular fields (Weiss-Heisenberg forces) have generated the reversally oriented internal field. The reversally oriented spontaneous magnetization has arosen in the rock. This internal field has been identified as the most important phenomenon leading to the production of the reversally oriented magnetization in the Fe-Ti FriM-AFM ChPs containing rocks. The equations expressing the magnetic behaviour of the magnetic susceptibility (κ) of rocks versus temperature have been derived. The Fe-Ti FriM-AFM cubic spinel can undergone the transition in favour of the Fe-Ti FriM-AFM tetragonal spinel in the rocks, due to a change of the thermodynamic conditions in nature. The reversed RM has supposed been inparted from the Fe-Ti FriM-AFM cubic spinel during this alteration-transition processess. Such tetragonal spinel is more stable and it is able to survive in the rocks in nature. The results of laboratory magnetization of the selected groupings of rocks have been presented below. The basic laboratory methods for the detection of the magnetic behaviour of the Fe-Ti FriM-AFM ChPs containing rocks are described as well. The presented results have shown that we do not need to apply the field reversal theory, because I have revealed the realistic mechanism which is able to generate the reversed RM of rocks under a presence of the normal geomagnetic field.

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Pasteloza – refurbishing of the PPR heritage

moving (...) but history also shows that arbitrary borders, albeit the most unstable, on the other hand, survive the most persistently in human consciousness precisely because of the representations they carry’ ( Gerva & Rose 2010 : 188). The greatest wave of pastelization has passed. With economic stabilization, the need for proving one’s progressive, full European identity to the West is slowly disappearing. As the necessity of the overstatement of consumerist identity begins to fade, this dark communist past is approached more and more objectively. In this sense

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Regeneration of market squares in historic town centres: ideas, discussions, controversies

additional parking places designed. The overall image of this crucial central space of Złotoryja became more homogenous and orderly. Nowa Ruda Nowa Ruda and its square date back to 1442, when fairs and markets officially began to be organized ( Eysymontt 2009 : 432). The size of the square (85 x 65m) dominates the town and is well depicted on the lithography from 1736 by F. A. Pompejus ( Neurode aus der Vogelschau im Jahre 1736 , n. d.). The town centre was destroyed by fire in the 19th century and later rebuilt, surviving mostly in this state until today

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al-Madīnah or la ville? An architectural & urban “clash of civilizations” – the example of the city of Algiers

in old Algiers is not distinguished by anything special. Their appearance resembled the idea of simplicity, ugliness, poverty and poor execution, although paradoxically many of these constructions have survived the numerous earthquakes that regularly haunt the city. The real wealth of the residential architecture of old Algiers is in the interior of the house. The vertical structure of buildings includes columns and brick arches ( Abdessemed-Foufa 2011 : 5) and various elements used to decorate the houses of the Casbah: wooden balustrades, decorated doors, capitals

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Living memorial and frozen monuments: the role of social practice in memorial sites

commemoration and its narrative. Nevertheless, neither memory nor commemoration is a straightforward, simple, one-way road: both individual and collective memory is subject to constant reformulation, whereas a proliferation of commemorations and politics of remembrance explains why memorials have a difficult task when tempting to address the multiplicities of memories (if they wish to at all). Still, there are monuments, like the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, which have not only managed to survive various regimes, but - if one considers the millions of tourists who visit it each

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