Xerothermic grasslands are veritable botanical gems of the Ponidzie region, located in the upland zone of Poland. Most of these exceptional plant communities have been formed as a result of deforestation, in habitats characterized by specific climatic, hydrological and soil conditions. The result of the natural reserve protection of the xerothermic grassland, however, is opposite to the desired result. The survival of the xerothermic grassland depends on the change in the approach to their protection. Xerothermic grasslands are an excellent example of the difficulties with maintaining very valuable, but semi-natural and anthropogenic communities, related to a large extent to traditional, extensive forms of agriculture. Similar problems occur in the case of gladiolus meadows in lower subalpine forest zones or of once-mown molinion meadows in river valleys.
survived many wide changes in environmental conditions, yet still ocean acidification is singled out by alarmists as the great threat to the reef.
Geological History of Limestone and Carbon Dioxide
Marine life depends on CO 2 , and some plants and animals fix it as limestone, which is not generally re-dissolved. Marine life, including that part that fixes CO 2 as the carbonate in limestones such as coral reefs, evolved on an Earth with CO 2 levels many times higher than those of today, as reported by Berner and Kothavala (2001) . It may be true to say that today
Ewa Skowronek, Teresa Brzezińska-Wójcik and Andrzej Stasiak
al. 2006 ).
Despite the region’s turbulent history, many elements of the material and non-material cultural heritage have survived. The largest group of surviving elements are the buildings of various purposes: dwelling premises (villas, manor houses, palaces and village homesteads), economic, and industrial (factory buildings, craftsmen’s workshops, windmills, granaries), ritual (churches, chapels, monasteries, synagogues) and public buildings (schools, hospitals, offices), as well as so called small architecture (e.g. roadside shrines, figures, and roadside
aggravated by generally a bad economic condition of all industrial plants located in the city. Initial plans to hire miners in other branches turned out impossible to implement. Many other industrial plants did not survive the transformation, including the porcelain factory “Książ”, built in the 1980s, which failed in 2004. Another porcelain factory “Wałbrzych” was eventually shut down in 2012.
Table 1 Number of the unemployed and job offers in the Labour Office in the years 1990–2015 (data as at the end of December).
The state border is a barrier that most people perceive and use to construct their identity vis-à-vis the neighbouring country ( van Houtum 1999 ). However, boundaries and their depiction on maps can bear multiple forms: most of the time, we provide other administrative–political boundaries where states are divided into smaller units, such as regions, provinces, counties or districts. Some of these borders have survived since their creation to the present, others serve as memory (see Jańczak’s concept of the phantom border, 2014). In our article
Benicjusz Głębocki, Ewa Kacprzak and Tomasz Kossowski
out in the years 1947–1950 followed by mass deportation of the Ruthene population living there. For a few years those areas were uninhabited, and it was only in the mid-1950s that the army started to develop them again. One of the forms of development was the organisation of military holdings that survived until the systemic changes of 1989. The third cluster of this type embraces communes in the lower section of the Odra valley. The indicators characterising the ownership structure and spatial organisation of type 19 are generally higher or close to the mean values
Matúš Hyžný, Oleg Mandic, Mathias Harzhauser and Peter Ledvák
Although decapod crustaceans of the Central Paratethys were diverse during the Badenian (Langhian-Early Serravallian), a dramatic drop in their diversity occurred at the boundary with the Sarmatian. A crab Mioplax socialis is one of the few decapods reported from the Lower Sarmatian (Mohrensternia Zone) of the Paratethys. Until now, this species has been known from only a handful of specimens from Austria, Croatia and Bulgaria (Central Paratethys), and its systematics and ecology remain poorly known. Here, on the basis of new specimens from the Sarmatian tuffitic clays of the Stretava Formation (Skároš, Eastern Slovakia) we confirm that this species belongs to the subfamily Chasmocarcininae. The diagnostic characters of the male sternum that allow this classification are reported for the first time. The molluscan assemblage co-occurring with M. socialis demonstrate that this species tolerated conditions with variable salinity. Its tolerance of a broad range of salinity regimes may thus explain its survival across the Badenian-Sarmatian extinction event. Preservation of near-complete and fully articulated individuals of M. socialis suggests calm conditions and short residence times on the sediment-water interface.
Eva Fuchsová, Jitka Laštovková and Michaela Jánská
Even in situations when welfare state budgets can be considered generous, many socially responsible, beneficial activities remain that cannot survive without the financial support of private individual or corporate donors. The article seeks an answer to questions of to what extent the willingness to donate one’s own money depends on wealth and income, and what the role of other socio-cultural factors is. The data about the amount of private and corporate donations in particular regions of the Czech Republic in the period of the years 2011–2015 is compared with data about the regional economic prosperity and income. The regression analysis results show that it was only possible to explain to certain level the amount of donations by the rate of the wealth of firms and individuals in particular regions. In case of the companies, it is a medium-strong correlation, while the correlation is strong in terms of individuals. Particularly in terms of the corporate donation, the willingness to donate is significantly related also with other, non-economic factors in the region.
Ireneusz Malik, Yongbo Tie, Piotr Owczarek, Małgorzata Wistuba, Wojciech Pilorz and Beata Woskowicz-Ślęzak
Large debris flows have destroyed the infrastructure and caused the death of people living in the Moxi Basin (Sichuan Province, Southwestern China). Inhabitants of the Moxi Basin live on the flat surfaces of debris-flow fans, which are also attractive for farming. During the monsoon season debris flows are being formed above the fans. Debris flows can destroy the houses of any people living within the fan surfaces. In order to prevent the adverse effects of flows, people plant alder trees (Alnus nepalensis) at the mouths of debris flow gullies running above debris flow fans. Alders are able to capture the debris transported during flow events. Trees are well adapted to surviving in conditions of environmental stress connected with abrupt transport and deposition of sediment from debris flows. Numerous wounds, tilting and bending of alder trees caused by debris flows only very rarely cause the death of trees. By dating scars and dating the time of alder tilting (through the analysis of annual rings), we have determined the frequency of debris flows occurring at the mouth of the Daozhao valley. In 1980–2012 within the studied debris-flow fan and the Daozhao gully, 2 large debris flow events occurred (1996, 2005) and some smaller events were probably recorded every 2–3 years.
Towns are tourist destinations because of their material heritage, cultural events as well as a wide range of other attractions. A special role in contemporary tourism development is played by historic towns that offer tourists not only heritage but also combine their genius loci with contemporary human needs. Sandomierz is one of the oldest Polish towns with its origins going back to the early Piast period. The thousand years of its history is visible in a well-preserved urban-architectural complex which has successfully survived both world wars in the 20th c. Today's image of ‘tourist’ Sandomierz is connected with the TV serial of Ojciec Mateusz. The story, set in Sandomierz, has become a tourist attraction as well as an important means of promotion and creating an image of the town as a pleasant and hospitable place. The role of the serial as a factor for tourism development in terms of tourism infrastructure and volume of tourists dates from 2008. Sandomierz offers much else that has created favourable conditions for the development of new forms of tourism.