lost the election to Richard Nixon, but the concept of basic income survived, albeit in another form. In 1975, the United States passed a law on tax credit [Earned Income Tax Credit ( Wikipedia 2019c )]. This idea is based on proposals for a negative income tax presented by Milton Friedman in his book Capitalism and Freedom , published in 1962. Friedman’s idea is closely related to the idea of basic income. Every individual of a given age would be eligible for tax credit of a given size. The credit would be taxed as any other income. Hence, individuals receiving
pertinently, the systematic absence of it) requires to be considered. Tax authorities suffer from information asymmetries and resource constraints, with the consequence that only a small minority of uncertain positions taken at the tax compliance stage are challenged. Further, in cases where a position is likely (but not certain) to survive a tax authority challenge, a tax authority may be expected not to challenge it even with adequate resources at its disposal and in full view of the evidence. In the United Kingdom, for example, HMRevenue&Customs’ stated policy provides
Public Production I Production efficiency” American Economic Review 61, 8-27.
SOU 2014: 40 “Neutral bolagskatt - för ökad effektivitet och stabilitet” Spengel, C. et.al. (2012), “Effective Tax Levels using the Devereux/Griffith Methodology”, Project for the EU Commission 2012, TAXUD/2008/CC/099
Sørensen, P.B. (2007), “Can capital income Taxes Survive? And Should They?”, CESifo Economic studies, Vol. 53 2/2007, 172-228.
Sørensen, P.B. (2010), “Swedish Tax Policy: Recent trends and Future Challenges”, ESO 2010: 4
Nordic countries. Danish Journal of Economics 143, 433-447.
Sørensen P.B. (2007) Can capital income taxes survive? And should they? CESifo Economic Studies 53, 172-228, Munich.
Toder E. and Viard A. (2014), Major Surgery Needed: A Call for Structural Reform of the US Corporate Income Tax. Tax Policy Center Publications, April 4. 2014. http://www.taxpolicycenter.org/publications/url.cfm?ID=413090
US Department of Treasury (1992), Integration of the Individual and Corporate Tax System: Taxing Business Income Once. U
principles were collected from the first domestic German tax treaty and the German law of 1870 concerning the avoidance of double taxation within the German Empire. A couple of these principles have (in moderated form) survived up until today. Among them, the surviving principles are that the economic/actual affiliation with a state is more important than nationality/citizenship when it comes to the allocation of the right to tax ( Freiherr von Roenne 2011 ) and also the principle concerning reciprocity ( Jogarajan 2011 ).
However, the First World War (1914