Modern environment in which operate tourism-economic factors is characterized by a high level of instability and the dynamics of change. Changes with its influences determine external operating conditions, over which micro organizational units have no control. In order to successfully survive it is necessary to identify and adapt to them. Marketing strategy of cultural heritage tourist valorisation, in this context, appears as an adequate approach. Strategic management enables planning on an analysis of past events, and in a special way takes into account estimates and projections of future conditions of the environment. Also, it should take into account that the coexistence of cultural heritage with the achievements of modern life is defined with sustainable development syntax. This paper in which research, formulation and presentation of the results were used the methods of analysis and synthesis, comparative, descriptive and historical methods outlines the development and analyzes the current state of cultural tourism in Croatia, and discusses approach to effective strategic marketing management of cultural heritage tourist valorisation, focusing on the sustainable development of tourism.
Customers, their needs, wishes and expectations have to be in the focus of each market-oriented enterprise, whose aim is to survive and develop in the conditions of continuous changes of environment and pronounced degree of competence. The aim of this paper is to emphasise the importance of customer satisfaction linked to service quality using theoretical survey and empirical research, point to factors that influence its level and present the measurement models in order to provide adequate reaction of the enterprise. Special attention is paid to the examination of relationship between the customer satisfaction, expectations, loyalty and service quality. The establishment and maintenance of long-term relationships based on high level of satisfaction through delivery of superior service quality leads to customer loyalty, whereby loyalty is a precondition for repurchase and realisation of business success of an enterprise. Since banking sector is extremely turbulent and characterised by strong competition, the empirical research conducted by the author using SERVQUAL model is aimed at examination of the satisfaction level of bank service customers and consequently making relevant recommendations and conclusions.
Offshoring in Business Services Sector Over the Business Cycle: A Case of Growth of the International Cooperation
In this paper I analyze the role of business service offshoring in international cooperation over the recession. In business services - as described in Schumpeterian literature - external restructuring including resource and production relocation is more intensive during recession periods while intensive internal restructuring accompanies expansion periods. As external restructuring encompass business processes fragmentation and offshoring of services, I also argue - taking into account historical evidence - that current economic crisis would result in growing service offshoring in business service sector. I expect that many financial institutions would relocate part of their business processes abroad, where operating costs are lower, as they find that external restructuring via offshoring is the way to survive. This, in turn, will be the most possible result in growth of service offshoring projects located in CEE and Asia, as these two locations were the most attractive ones in recent years for service offshoring. The process is reflected by growth of FDI outflows from developed economies to CEE and Asia as well as growth of business and IT services trade between the mentioned economies. However, I also expect that in short run (one year perspective) we will experience tremendous decrease of FDI flows including investment in service offshoring, nevertheless the share of FDI flows related to service offshoring in total FDI flows will increase.
The purpose of this paper is to show the methodological power and potentiality of the concept paradigm of unity introduced originally in the ceremony on the occasion of honoring Chiara Lubich with the doctor honoris causa title by the Catholic University of Lublin in 1996. Originally this conception was used to suggest the societal activity of Chiara Lubich in building, via the Focolari movement, psychosocial infrastructures for unity in various social domains, (for example in the economy of communion, in politics (politicians for unity project), in public media (journalists for unity), in ecumenism and inter-religious contacts (ecumenical and inter-religion Focolari Centers) This conception is a kind of a great inspiration (a kind of Copernican revolution in the social sciences) which would motivate the social sciences to build their own research paradigm of a type of mental and methodological power and potentiality which could give a new vision of social world (as Copernicus did in natural sciences (Biela, 1996, 2006)). Thomas Kuhn (1962) regarded the Copernician revolution as the one which, in the history of science, best illustrates the nature of scientific revolution. The essence of paradigm in a Kuhnian sense is a mentality change in its nature. Copernicus had to change the well-established geocentric system which functioned not only in the science of his day but also in culture, tradition, social perception, and even in the mentality of religious and political authorities. And he did it in a well prepared empirical, methodological and psychological way.
In a similar way Chiara Lubich created by her social acting a revolutionary inspiration for building paradigm in social science She decided in an extremely difficult and risky situation in 1944 in Trento not only to escape from her own life emergency but she with her friends made a decision to help other people who were in a much more difficult situation to survive. She decided to take a war bombing risk to be with lost children and older people who were in need. It was a practical building of the unity with the real people who were in need. This kind of experience rediscovered the community as a model for the real life and made a concretization and clarification of the charisma of the unity. However, the development of this charisma shows that it is simply a concrete and practical actualization of the new vision of social, economic, political and religious relationships which advises, recommends, suggests, and promotes the unity with others persons (Lubich, 2007).
In this paper I first list a number of areas in which recent research seems to reinforce the need to follow through on activities identified in Simonetta Magari’s article (Magari, Cavaleri 2009). A careful review of research in these areas would lead us into deeply mysterious psychological processes and underline the need to change the most fundamental assumptions on which modern psychology is built. Unfortunately, I am in no position to undertake this review.
Accordingly, I have settled for the lesser objective of discussing (i) the problems posed by the phenomenon of emergence; (ii) the dominant role that networks of external social forces play in determining behaviour (and the way these networks of social forces perpetuate and elaborate themselves), and (iii) the emergence of a network of negative social forces which seems to have the future of mankind and the planet in its grip.
I start by showing that one of the most important uses of the slippery word “intelligence” is to refer to an emergent property of a group. Groups can, to a greater or lesser extent, harness (or neglect and destroy) the diverse talents available to them to create cultures of intelligence or enterprise on the one hand and despondency and conflict on the other.
Whereas we, as a species, currently have the highest levels of individual intelligence ever, it seems that we have the lowest levels of collective intelligence ever.
But group and individual characteristics are not the only things transformed by networks of social forces. Time after time we see that well intentioned social action is transformed into its opposite by networks of social forces.
A systemogram of the social forces which transform the “educational” system into its opposite is then used as a basis for a discussion of the role of social forces more generally.
Two issues then stare one in the face. One is that our governance systems are ill equipped to promoting the kind of experimentation and societal learning that is needed…especially to enable us to survive as a species. The other is the dominance of the “sociological” forces pressing unrelentingly toward the societal hierarchy and division that is leading us so forcefully toward our self-destruction.
Unexpectedly, therefore, it emerges that two key tasks for psychologists, qua psychologists, are (i) to contribute to the design of a societal management system which will act more effectively in the long term public interest – that is to say, in the interests of maintaining life itself – and (ii) to map the network of social forces which are driving us so relentlessly toward our own extinction.
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Gambling is an ancient human activity with a prevalent position nowadays both as a social entertainment activity and as a way to gain money effortless. Every country has its specific pattern in gambling determined both by its cultural and macroeconomic determinants and by its national regulatory framework. Macroeconomic variables as gross national income per capita, annual variation of GDP or unemployment were previously proved to be connected with the gambling industry. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects generated by the internal and external loss of confidence in the Italian economy, as an effect of the latest financial crisis, over the Italian gambling industry. The level of spread between the 10 years yield of Italian and German government bonds is used as a proxy for the international trust in the Italian economy and the Economic Sentiment Indicator is used to describe the Italian citizens' confidence. The main results show a strong positive, statistically significant correlation between skill games and spread and an unexpected negative significant correlations between spread and lottery, one of the purely fortune games that was often seen as an ultimate chance to survive the crisis. The Economic Sentiment Indicator seems not to be correlated with any of the gambling categories.
Small and medium sized companies (SMEs) assure economic growth in Europe. The Environmental Technologies Action Plan (ETAP) concentrated and mobilized Member State and stakeholder efforts bringing eco-innovation from research to market, improving market conditions, opening up global markets. Rapid and reinforced actions are now required, building on the experience of ETAP helping SMEs to have benefits by introducing eco-innovative approaches into their operations. Particularly start-ups, can be the ideal incubators for eco-innovation, and can bring to market new, less environmentally damaging products, services and processes. Generally many SMEs are struggling to survive in an ongoing global recession and often they are becoming reluctant to release innovation, particularly eco-innovation (Assante et al., 2016). In this paper we present first the differences between eco-innovation based business models and those based on regular innovations. Secondly we give some approaches tested in national and European projects with participation of the authors in order to help SMEs to develop business models of eco-innovations. The first one is to build cooperation between researchers, educators and SME staff in order to explain SMEs the advantages of such models and to implement models designed by researchers. Secondly we used practice oriented forms of training for SMEs like Problem Based Learning (PBL) as an efficient form for SMEs and entrepreneurship education to learn to solve problems like the building of an eco-innovation business model. Thirdly we use in our projects eco-innovation biographies (EIBs) reflecting the evolutionary character of such innovations and the dynamics of related policy streams.
Our approach, in this paper, is focused on life-long learning tools that are available for young Romanian entrepreneurs, in their early career stages. Life-long learning in the case of entrepreneurs is not a topic widely covered in scientific literature up to this moment. Most of the scientific papers related to entrepreneurship focus on the idea of innovation and creativity that characterizes entrepreneurship. On the other side, the scientific literature that considers life-long learning, discusses the case of employees or managers, who are required to improve their knowledge and skills in order to perform at the work place. For the current paper, it was aimed to survey the lifelong learning tools available to young Romanian people and to evaluate their efficiency with the help of interviews with young entrepreneurs on their educational path. Otherwise stated, we intended to provide more insights on the learning methods and practices of entrepreneurs, and to establish whether the current formal education represents a strong basis for entrepreneurs’ life-long learning. The research that we performed revealed that young Romanian entrepreneurs practice indeed a lifelong learning based not as much on formal education, as on learning by practicing and networking. Starting from the observations obtained, it was conceived, based on current European best practices and projective discussions with the same young entrepreneurs, a set of life-long learning initiatives that may be promoted in the entrepreneurial community, and we identify the actual steps to be taken by life-long learning education providers in order to implement these initiatives. This paper’s conclusions serve as both a state of the art analysis, in a field which is vital for entrepreneurs surviving in competitive environments, and as a prospective guide for improving the present market of life-long learning programs.