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Origin, Types, and Functioning of Chandeliers with Serpent Arms: From the Netherlands to Lithuania


Chandeliers with serpent arms held at the National Museum of Lithuania and the Lithuanian Art Museum are among the earliest found in Lithuania. Previous efforts to find chandeliers of similar décor in Latvia or Poland while collecting material on lighting fixtures in Lithuania and the neighbouring countries were unsuccessful. Due to that reason, it was thought that the spread of these chandeliers of extraordinary décor was limited to the territory of Lithuania. A closer and more thorough look into collections of Western European museums has revealed that the motif of an elegantly coiled snake on chandelier arms should be related to Hans Rogiers, a founder who worked in Amsterdam in 1598–1638.

In the article, the origin of chandeliers with serpent arms in Western Europe and the ways they could have possibly reached Lithuania are traced back for the first time. Specimens that survived or did not survive in Lithuania, their development and problems of dating are analysed. Their functioning space is explored and the subject of their symbolism is addressed. The article aims to present and evaluate the surviving chandeliers with serpent arms in Lithuania. In the research, instruments of formal, comparative, iconographic, and reconstructive analysis were used.

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Determinants of voter turnout in Nsukka Council of Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria

engagement The journal of politics 59 4 1051 1072 Wallerstein, J.S. and Kelly, J.B. (2008). Surviving the breakup: How children and parents cope with divorce Basic books. Wallerstein J.S. Kelly J.B. 2008 Surviving the breakup: How children and parents cope with divorce Basic books Wilensky, H.L. (2002). Rich democracies: Political economy, public policy, and performance California: University of California Press. Wilensky H.L. 2002 Rich democracies: Political economy, public policy, and performance

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Hamlet Ex Machina


Art movements don’t end up at a precise moment, but they can survive over the decades in different ways, even if they could be considered out of date. Today, we live in the post-human or the post-digitalized era, but here and now we also recognize marks or processes derived from the art of the ‘80s. What are postmodernism’s shadows that have been shaping recent years’ performances and how does Romanian theatre directing look like, seen against the bigger drama background in or within our European continent – those are the two main questions to which our study tries to find potential answers. Given that we don’t want to lose ourselves into various theatre productions, we have chosen to verify this with an ageless play – Hamlet. How do they (still) look like and what do they hide again, the new profiles of the prince who speaks to us about the death of sleep’s dreams – those are the questions depicted from the hyper-technological identities of Hamlet ex machina.

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Holocaust Representation and Graphical Strangeness in Art Spiegelman’s Maus: A Survivor’s Tale: “Funny Animals,” Constellations, and Traumatic Memory

Distance in Holocaust Literature. Journal of American Culture 18(1): 35–40. DOI: 10.1111/j.1542-734X.1995.1801_35.x (Accessed on: 17 September 2017). Hirsch, Marianne. (2001). Surviving Images: Holocaust Photographs and the Work of Postmemory. The Yale Journal of Criticism 14(1): 5–37. DOI: 10.1353/yale.2001.0008 (Accessed on: 17 September 2017). Hirsch, Marianne. (2011). Mourning and Postmemory. In: Michael A. Chaney (ed.), Graphic Subjects. Critical Essays on Autobiography and Graphic Novels (Wisconsin Studies in Autobiography). Wisconsin–London: The

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Culture of Sedentary Play in India – The Space Context


Playing of sedentary games with dice and playing board games have had a major role in the Indian culture since at least 3000 BCE. This is shown by archaeological sites and early literary references in the Rig-Veda, Mahabharata and other texts. Some of these games have survived in the form of boards, game pieces, dice and cards. Apart from actual sets, the traces of board games can also be found in Hindu rock cut temples. These sculptures and paintings appear across the medieval period. The list is exhaustive. The game play also finds its presence on numerous temple floorings, carved or inscribed. Why would somebody carve these board games on these spaces? Interestingly, throughout history, some board games have increased its popularity, and some have disappeared from artistic expressional record. How did one board game overtake the other in terms of its popularity in the later phases of history? What made these games socially acceptable and popular? Where were these games played? What was the space context? The paintings dominantly show royal houses, court rooms as spaces. Were there special pavilions used for game playing by Indian royals? In India board games were traditionally played at ground level. With growing European influence in the subcontinent in the 18th century, local elites adopted the western custom of elevated furniture for board games. Did this change the space context?

The paper thus tries to evolve parameters to analyze the impact of board games on spaces and would throw light on the “space context” with reference to Indian board games tracing it to the contemporary time.

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Ancient American Board Games, I: From Teotihuacan to the Great Plains


Besides the ubiquitous patolli—a race game played on a cruciform gameboard—the Aztecs had obviously a few other board games. Unfortunately their names have not been recorded. We owe to Diego Durán, writing in the last quarter of the 16th century from local sources, some hints of what appears to be a “war game” and a second, different race game that he calls ‘fortuna’. A close examination of some Precolumbian codices shows a rectangular design with a chequered border, together with beans and gamepieces, which has correctly been interpreted as a board game. Many similar diagrams can be seen carved on stone in temples and public places, from Teotihuacan (c. 4th-7th century AD) to late Toltec times (9th-12th century AD). Of this game too we do not know the name. It has tentatively been called quauhpatolli (“eagle- or wooden-patolli”) by Christian Duverger (1978)—although this seems to have been the classic post-conquest Nahuatl name for the game of chess—or “proto-patolli”, and more concretely “rectángulo de cintas” (rectangle of bands) by William Swezey and Bente Bittman (1983).

The lack of any representation of this game in all Postcolumbian codices, as painted by Aztec artists commissioned by Spanish scholars interested in the Aztec culture, is clear indication that the game had disappeared before the Spanish conquest, at least in central Mexico. No Aztec site shows any such gameboard. Fortunately this game had survived until the 20th (and 21st!) century but located in the Tarascan country, now the state of Michoacán. It was discovered, unchanged, in a Tarascan (Purepecha) village by Ralph L. Beals and Pedro Carrasco, who published their find in 1944. At that time Beals and Carrasco had no idea the game was attested in early codices and Teotihuacan to Maya and Toltec archaeological sites. In Purepecha the game is called k’uillichi.

There is evidence of an evolution that led to a simplification of the game: less tracks, less gamesmen (in fact only one per player, while k’uillichi has four), and less ‘dice’. From a “complex” race game, the new debased version turned to be a simple single-track race game with no strategy at all. It is possible that this process took place in Michoacán. (A few examples of the simplified game were found in some Tarascan villages.) Also it seems the widespread use of the Nahua language, which the Spanish promoted, led to calling the game, and/or its dice, patol. As it was, patol proved to be very appealing and became very popular in the Mexican West, finally reaching the Noroeste, that is, the present North-West of Mexico and Southwest of the United States.

This seems to have been a recent trend, since its progress was observed with much detail by missionaries living in close contact with the Indians along what was called the ‘Camino Real’, the long highway that led from western Mexico to what is now New Mexico in the U.S. The Spanish themselves seem to have helped the game in its diffusion, unaware of its presence. It is clearly with the Spaniards that the patol game, sometimes also called quince (fifteen), reached the American Southwest and settled in the Pueblo and the Zuñi countries.

It is there that some newcomers, coming from the North or from the Great Plains, and getting in contact with the Pueblos in the 18th century, found the game and took it over. The Kiowas and Kiowa Apaches are noted for their zohn ahl (or tsoñä) game, while the Arapahos call it ne’bäku’thana. A careful examination of zohn ahl shows that it has kept the basic features of an ancient game that came—in Spanish times—from Mexico and may have been popular in Teotihuacan times. Its spread northward—through the Tarascan country—is, hopefully, well documented.

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How Movies Influence Our Dietary Behaviour?

. ‘James Bond: Secret to spy’s success’. -60 Minutes, October 14.;contentBody (25 August 2013). Distefan, J. M.; Gilpin, E.; Sargent, J. D.; Pierce, J. P.1999. ‘Do movie stars encourage adolescents to strat smoking? Evidence from California.’ - Preventive Medicine, 28, 1, 1-11. Donaton, S. 2004. Madison & Vine: Why the Entertainment and Advertising Industries Must Converge to Survive. New York: McGraw-Hill. Estonian

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