Laxmi Goparaju, P. Rama Chandra Prasad and Firoz Ahmad
Forests, the backbone of biogeochemical cycles and life supporting systems, are under severe pressure due to varied anthropogenic activities. Mining activities are one among the major reasons for forest destruction questioning the survivability and sustainability of flora and fauna existing in that area. Thus, monitoring and managing the impact of mining activities on natural resources at regular intervals is necessary to check the status of their depleted conditions, and to take up restoration and conservative measurements. Geospatial technology provides means to identify the impact of different mining operations on forest ecosystems and helps in proposing initiatives for safeguarding the forest environment. In this context, the present study highlights the problems related to mining in forest ecosystems and elucidates how geospatial technology can be employed at various stages of mining activities to achieve a sustainable forest ecosystem. The study collates information from various sources and highlights the role of geospatial technology in mining industries and reclamation process.
Vasilije Isajev, Vera Lavadinović, Aleksandar Lučić and Ljubinko Rakonjac
Isajev V., Lavadinović V., Lučić A., Rakonjac L.J.: Serbian spruce (Picea omorca /Panc./ Purkyne) variability in the artificial populations in Serbia. Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 3, p. 277-282, 2013. A great part of the genetic variation and the potentials of Serbian spruce natural populations have been incorporated in several plantations in the Western Serbia at the site Quercetum fraineto-cerris s.l., Salicetum fragillis s.l and Pinetum nigre s.l. and in other similar occurrences In this way, it becomes much more available for the research and future utilization. The intensive research of the plantations started by the classification of trees into phenogroups which were considered to be significant for forestry and horticulture. The differences between flowering years, plantations and individual trees in the regularity and abundance of micro- and macro-strobiles are major indicators f genetic variability in the reproductive cycle of Serbian spruce. The interaction of environmental characteristics and genotypes of extreme and average trees illustrate the reproductive ability of Serbian spruce on different sites and indicates that this species achieves the coenological and not the ecological optimum at its natural sites. Application of genetic/selection programmes can lead to the production of planting stock of desired and defined properties, which could survive the stress environmental factors, thanks to its morphological and physiological properties.
The European beech Fagus sylvatica L. ssp. sylvatica L. is exclusively found in Europe. The beech survived the ice age in small refuges in the south and south-east Europe and went on to colonise large parts of the continent. The post-ice age colonisation of the landscape by the beech took place parallel to the settlement of land by humans and the formation of a more complex society. For centuries much of the Carpathian mountain forests remained untouched (Fig. 1). Virgin forests constitute a natural heritage of global significance. In 2007, 10 protected areas with the Primeval Beech Forests of Carpathians (Slovakia, Ukraine) were added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List. On 25 June 2011, the UNESCO World Heritage Committee added five of Germany’s beech forest protected areas to the World Heritage List. This extended the transboundary world natural heritage site ‘Primeval Beech Forest of the Carpathians’, located in the Slovak Republic and Ukraine, to include a German forest protected areas, and renamed it ‘Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Ancient Beech Forests of Germany’. This paper is aimed at the presentation of the outstanding universal value of the ecological processes in the Joint World Heritage Sites, short description of protected areas and principles of their integrated management plan. This paper also deals with problems in management plan realisation in practice. Ultimate goal is to achieve that management and socio-economic sustainable development practices are in harmony with primary objectives of World Heritage Site protection, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape stability, rational use of natural resources, ecotourism development and with potential of the landscape in largest possible extend.
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Slender speedwell (Veronica filiformis Smith, family Plantaginaceae) is a non-native and invasive species of grassland in the Europe. The aim of the study was to test the ability of the growth and spreading in nine differently managed grasslands (mowing, mulching, grazing). The best survival was found in two-years mowed lots with fertilisation and in all lots with not permanent cattle pasture crops. There were found the highest number of survived plants and plants with big “rosette“ diameters. Number of survived plant for two seasons was 18 and total number of vegetative peaks per plant was 688. The potential for the spreading of such plant population is great. On the other hand, plants did not survived in lots with mulch treatment and in fenced lots with permanent cattle grazing.