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Origin, Types, and Functioning of Chandeliers with Serpent Arms: From the Netherlands to Lithuania


Chandeliers with serpent arms held at the National Museum of Lithuania and the Lithuanian Art Museum are among the earliest found in Lithuania. Previous efforts to find chandeliers of similar décor in Latvia or Poland while collecting material on lighting fixtures in Lithuania and the neighbouring countries were unsuccessful. Due to that reason, it was thought that the spread of these chandeliers of extraordinary décor was limited to the territory of Lithuania. A closer and more thorough look into collections of Western European museums has revealed that the motif of an elegantly coiled snake on chandelier arms should be related to Hans Rogiers, a founder who worked in Amsterdam in 1598–1638.

In the article, the origin of chandeliers with serpent arms in Western Europe and the ways they could have possibly reached Lithuania are traced back for the first time. Specimens that survived or did not survive in Lithuania, their development and problems of dating are analysed. Their functioning space is explored and the subject of their symbolism is addressed. The article aims to present and evaluate the surviving chandeliers with serpent arms in Lithuania. In the research, instruments of formal, comparative, iconographic, and reconstructive analysis were used.

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Renovation of Wooden Buildings in Riga


The wooden architecture of the 19th century is mentioned in the UNESCO World Heritage description of Riga among the criteria that makes the Capital city of Outstanding Universal Value. So far, 3 500 wooden buildings in the city have survived. This paper summarizes information on the renovation of four wooden buildings. The aim of this paper is to give a closer overview on the impact of ownership, funding source and location in the city of the building on the process of renovation and architectural change. The internationally approved renovation principles in the renovation of wooden buildings in Riga are not often taken into account.

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Pasteloza – refurbishing of the PPR heritage

moving (...) but history also shows that arbitrary borders, albeit the most unstable, on the other hand, survive the most persistently in human consciousness precisely because of the representations they carry’ ( Gerva & Rose 2010 : 188). The greatest wave of pastelization has passed. With economic stabilization, the need for proving one’s progressive, full European identity to the West is slowly disappearing. As the necessity of the overstatement of consumerist identity begins to fade, this dark communist past is approached more and more objectively. In this sense

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Regional Economie Resilienee: A Sehumpeterian Perspective

is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change . Charles Darwin (1859) Origin of Species 1 Introduction During the years 2008–2009 the UK economy experienced the deepest depression since the late 1920s. This has prompted both scholarly and policy debates on how and when it will be possible for the UK economy as a whole and its constituent regional economies to recover. The concept of 'resilience' has come to the fore as one possible way of conceptualising and

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Zwischen Netzwerk und Organisation
Die Dynamik der Verstetigung regionaler Kooperationen

vermutet. Schon aus der Regionalökonomie häuften sich die Gegenbeweise. Zum Ersten fiel auf: Es waren immer dieselben Regionen, deren Erfolgsgeschichte auf Netzwerke flexibel spezialisierter kleiner Unternehmen zurückgeführt wurde: Drittes Italien, Silicon Valley, Baden-Württemberg, Grenoble. Dies waren aber bei weitem nicht die einzigen Regionen der Welt, die sich erfolgreich entwickelten. Großunternehmen behielten empirisch durchaus ihre strukturprägende Bedeutung („Ford survives Fordism“), wenn sich auch ihre Produkte ändern mochten. Zum Zweiten gerieten auch einige

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Auswahldokumentation neuer Literatur
Neuzugänge und aktuelles periodisches Schrifttum zur Raum- und Siedlungsentwicklung aus der Bibliothek des Bundesamts für Bauwesen und Raumordnung

Rottal-Inn <Kreis> Mielke, Bernd Regionenmarketing im Kontext regionaler Entwicklungskonzepte [Aufsatz] : The marketing of regions in the context of regional development strategies / Bernd Mielke. Zsfassung in engl. Sprache In: Raumforschung und Raumordnung. 58 (2000), 4, S. 317-325 Regionalpolitik; Regionalentwicklung; Standortpolitik; Kommunikation; Öffentlichkeitsarbeit; Kooperation; Landesplanung Bundesrepublik Deutschland Naess, Petter; Saglie, Inger-Lise Surviving between the trenches [Aufsatz] : planning research, methodology and theory of Science

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Was treibt den Motor an?
Stadtregionen zwischen innovativen Milieus und Urban Governance

auch Region als komplexe Strukturen zu verstehen, die gesellschaftliche Subsysteme wie Ökonomie, Soziales, Kultur, Wissenschaft usw. miteinander integriert und konzertiert, hat über die vergangenen zehn Jahre wesentliche Züge verschiedener wissenschaftlicher Diskussionen geprägt. Geographie, Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Regionalwissenschaft, Soziologie u.a. Vgl. Lagendijk, A.: Will New Regionalism survive? Tracing dominant concepts in economic geography. = Draft Paper, Centre for Urban and Regional Development Studies, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, April 1998

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Tools for Resilience Building and Adaptive Spatial Governance
Challenges for Spatial and Urban Planning in Dealing with Vulnerability

climate change can be differentiated. Smit and Wandel (2006 : 283) distinguish between a natural science and a social science perspective and emphasise that "in natural science adaptation is often viewed as the development of genetic or behavioural characteristics which enable organisms or systems to cope with environmental changes in order to reproduce and survive". In contrast, social science approaches: "examine adaptation often with regard to cultural practices allowing societies to survive in the light of climate induced changes. Within these approaches

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Stigmatisation of Cities. The Vulnerability of Local Identities

weakened by the low sense of identification that residents have with the city or, in some cases, by the broken relationship they have to it (love-hate relationship). As the case studies show, local identities that have grown up over time survive a structural break or structural change in a city and can become a hindrance to urban regeneration. Stigmatisation is an additional attack on cities that are experiencing an identity crisis. A central role in dealing with the stigmatisation is played not by the groups affected but by local elites acting as representatives of

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Regional Structural Change and Resilience
From Lignite Mining to Tourism in the Lusatian Lakeland

transfer to regional development. Holling defines resilience as contrasting with stability. Whereas stability involves relatively minor fluctuations, e.g. in a population, resilience primarily concerns a system's ability to survive (persistence). Hence, systems with a high degree of stability may well display little resilience ( Holling 1973 : 14 f.). The structure and function of the system remains unchanged. If an ecosystem is not resilient to shock, the system will be subject to irreversible change ( Holling 1973 : 7), causing a transformation to take place. This

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