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): American Indian Lacrosse: Little Brother of War. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press. VIZENOR, G. (1993). The Ruins of Representation: Shadow Survivance and the Literature of Dominance. In. American Indian Quarterly 17:1, pp. 7-30. WEATHERFORD, E. (ed) (1981): Native Americans on Film and Video. New York: National Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation. WEINBERGER, E. (1992): The Camera People. In. Transition 55, pp. 24-54. WILSON, P. - STEWART, M. (eds.) (2008): Global Indigenous Media: Cultures, Poetics, and Politics. Durham and London: Duke


30 years after socialism many groups of Evenki reindeer herders failed to survive in the suboreal taiga of East Siberia. By making reference to two case studies from the northern part of the Zabaikal region and southern part of the Republic of Sakha, this article shows how the successful continuation of reindeer herding is based on the ability of charismatic leaders mobilising Evenki communities around reindeer herding and subsistence economies. This success also relies on connection to different agents of power in local administrations, large cities and governments and the use of all of the available opportunities that infrastructure or economic agents can offer.


Northern countries are facing the challenges of declining human capital, and admitting immigrants, many of whom belong to religious minorities, to satisfy the demand for labour. If northern societies accept multiculturalism and immigrants, they should not disregard the cultures and religious practices (for example, ritual slaughter) of immigrants, as they need to survive and integrate as a minority community in a secular society. However, there is clash between secularism and religions permitting animal slaughter, which is prohibited by some and allowed by other European countries. Community viability and sustainability depend partly on the exercise of community beliefs and ideology that support identity behaviour. This study will present an ethnographic analysis of the religiosity related to ritual slaughter and Muslim cultural identity in the European Arctic region and explore how religious relativism and practice sustain the community and support the overall integration of the Muslim minority in the North.


Estonian ethnography as one of the Estonia-related disciplines was tied with Estonian nationalism from the very beginning. Defined as a science investigating mainly the material side of vanishing traditional peasant culture in the 1920s, it fitted rather well with the Soviet understanding of ethnography as a sub discipline of history. Thanks to the major cooperation projects initiated and coordinated by ethnographers from Moscow, Soviet Estonian ethnographers could continue studying Estonian traditional peasant culture. Their favourite research topics (folk costume, peasant architecture and traditional agriculture) supported Estonian national identity, but also suited the framework of Soviet ethnography. Studying contemporary (socialist) everyday life was unpopular among Estonian ethnographers because the results had to justify and support Soviet policy. They did so unwillingly, and avoided it completely if possible. Despite of some interruption during the Stalin era, ethnography managed to survive as a science of the nation in Soviet Estonia.

waste time on lengthy descriptions of dangerous moments that threatened his life (after all, the reader knows that he survived) or at least his limbs on multiple occasions. Those events are simply mentioned as parts of his expedition and as the bread and butter of the local people. Yet, the story is captivating, as Donner effortlessly blends ethnographic descriptions with anecdotic events. This is greatly enhanced by a very good translation by Anežka Melounová. The original text is complemented with a preface by Zdeněk Justoň, footnotes and a postface by

): 69–89. Regassa, Megersa and Dejene Gemechu. 2015b. Jigaa Institution: The Surviving Gadaa Court among the Jimma Oromo, Ethiopia. – Ethiopian Journal of Social Sciences and language Studies 2 (2): 3–23. Minahan, James. 2002. Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World III, L–R. Westport, CT; London: Greenwood Press. Nanda, Serena. 1994. Cultural Anthropology . 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Norrick, Neal R. 1985. How Proverbs Mean: Semantic Studies in English Proverbs. Trends in Linguistics

-29. Sokolova, Zoya Petrovna. 2009. Khanty i mansi: Vzglyad iz XXI veka. Moskva: Nauka. [Соколова, Зоя Петровна. 2009. Ханты и манси: Взгляд из XXI века. Москва: Наука.] Taringa, Nisbert. 2006. How Environmental Is African Traditional Religion? - Exchange 35 (2): 191-214. DOI: Valk, Ülo. 2008. Inimene ja teispoolsus eesti rahvausundis. - Eesti Rahvakultuur, edited by Ants Viires and Elle Vunder. Tallinn: Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, 379-395. Wiget, Andrew and Olga Balalaeva. 2011. Khanty, People of Taiga: Surviving the Twentieth

more interested in the nuances of what makes life liveable (and mournable). Her idea of the “precarious body”, in this sense, is cultural and political —focused on the things we do to survive, the performances we give so as to adhere to the social protocols of race, sexuality, ethnicity and ability. Agamben’s arguments about “bare life”, by contrast, are legal —his interests are driven by a will to critique and overcome the law and its function within the sovereign state. See Judith Butler, Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence . New York