Expenditures: Guidelines, Department for Disarmament Affairs United Nations, New York. Retrieved 20.5.2015 from http://www.un.org/disarmament/convarms/Milex/Docs/Forms/Guidelines/MILEX%20publication%20final%20E.pdf UNODA (2015a). United Nations Report on Military Expenditures. Retrieved 20.5.2015 from http://www.un-arm.org/Milex/Home.aspx Valášek, T. (2011). Surviving Austerity: The case for a new approach to EU military collaboration. Centre for European Reform. 42 pages. Retrieved 15.5.2015 from http://www.cer.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/attachments/pdf/2011/rp
one-fourth of the Soviet population of the time and destroy over half of its industry ( Pifer et al. 2010 : p. 5). Even this was not considered enough, because one had to take into account the effect of possible Soviet first-strike capability. Thus, to ensure survivability of sufficient capabilities, each leg of the strategic triad had, independently of others, to have this capacity ( Kaplan 1980 : p. 3). The requirement of killing one-fourth of the Soviet population rests on historical experience, since in World War II, the Soviet Union suffered from casualties of
1 Introduction Military organizations are bureaucratic, hierarchical ( Alvinius 2013 ) and meritocratic ( Castilla and Benard 2010 ) in their design, which includes not only inherit challenges but also opportunities for the organizational members. Military organizations have survived for hundreds of years and therefore it is assumed that their design makes the organization functional, alive and proper ( Andrzejewski 1954 ). It is seldom that one associates military organizations with dysfunctional organizational aspects, which is the focus of this study. However
instruments, as well as connections with the nearby medical museum and collection. I wanted
to see the collection in person to examine the instruments carefully and in context of other
related objects. It was a small collection housed in a basement storage room – a former
enclosed laboratory. But to my surprise, there was more than had been portrayed in existing
documentation of the collection.8 There was a variety of surviving tuning forks from several
makers such as Edelmann, Kohl, Appunn, and Zimmerman. There were only a few dozen
century since its first release in the
US for the book of Raul Hilberg Zagłada Żydów europejskich (The Destruction of the
European Jews) . It is the study of the Holocaust, presented in the form of a description
of the process that took place in Europe before and during World War II . The author,
who came from a family of Galician Jews, was one of the victims of the Holocaust .
To survive, he and his family were forced to emigrate from Europe . He came to the
continent again as an American soldier . After the war, he received his promotion to
facto funding agency,4 it stepped
directly over the competences of INIC. JNICT had a very different genesis: it was created in
the late period of the dictatorship (1967), strongly entangled with the political power, being
brought into being directly under the President of the Council,5 António de Oliveira Salazar,
by the influence of Francisco Leite Pinto, a man of science and of the regime.6 It was the first
Portuguese institution featuring the term “science policy” in its mission and it would not only
survive the revolution but strive under the democratic
correct methods in their examinations.61
When the research project ended, the results showed that this last beekeeper was right:
contaminated pollen weakened the hives so that they did not survive the winter. The local
committee of beekeepers was also right; it was pesticides that killed their bees. Whereas the
State Entomologist was wrong; chemical analysis was not always a proper tool when detecting
bee poisoning from pesticides.62
Regulations were made, 1941
In July 1939 Rolf Lunder summarised the results of the “investigations concerning possible
67 L. León Durán, “Las fumigaciones con el ácido cianhídrico,” Las Provincias: diario de Valencia,
December 22, 1911, 1.
68 “Plan para la enseñanza teórico práctica de capataces fumigadores en la Estación de Fitopatología
Agrícola de Valencia [Informe del Ingeniero Director de la Estación de Patología Vegetal de Burjasot, 6
de junio de 1928],” Estación de fitopatología, AHUV.
69 Silverio Planes Garcia, “Las plagas de los frutales en Levante,” Agricultura. Revista Agropecuaria,
March 1933, 151-55.
70 “Plan para la enseñanza teórico práctica de
tools and ontological continuity and robustness in dense technological
80 Preserved Worlds
HoST - Journal of History of Science and Technology 14, no. 1 (June 2020): 79-112
Introduction: Specifications for Environments, Thresholds, and
Both in the human and animal kingdoms, life-saving intervention is often linked with
different types of enclosure. Specific spaces are designed to preserve fragile states of living
that would not otherwise survive the threat posed by agents of excess or precarity. Whether
nonhuman primates,” 359.
20 E Taub and A. J. Berman, “Movement and learning in the absence at sensory feedback,” in The
Neuropsychology of spatially orientated behaviour, ed. S. J. Freedman, 173-92 (Homewood, Illinois:
Dorsey Press, 1968), 189-90.
39 Robert G. W. Kirk
HoST - Journal of History of Science and Technology 13, no. 2 (December 2019): 31-59
claim that sensation was a necessary component of movement.
Foetal surgery had a high level of mortality with over half of the animals dying.21 Those monkeys
that survived had heightened