Ilona Jastrzębska, Wiktor Bodnar, Kerstin Witte, Eberhard Burkel, Paweł Stoch and Jacek Szczerba
In this work spinel series with the general formula Fe1-xMnxAl2O4 (where x = 0, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7) were synthesized and characterized with respect to their structure and microstructure. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was used to identify the phase composition that revealed a single phase spinel material. Rietveld refinements of the XRD patterns were carried out in order to determine the lattice and oxygen positional parameters of the spinel compounds. Mössbauer effect measurements were performed at room temperature to determine the local chemical environment of the Fe ions, their valences, and degrees of spinels inversion. It was shown that an increase in the Mn content led to a decrease in the ratio of Fe2+ to Fe3+. The results obtained from Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) were used to establish the chemical formulas of the synthesized spinels. Finally, the microstructure that was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a compact microstructure with an octahedral crystal habit.
Marek Wiertel, Zbigniew Surowiec, Mieczysław Budzyński, Jan Sarzyński and Anatoly I. Beskrovnyi
The aim of the presented paper is to study an influence of replacement of Fe atoms by Si atoms in quasibinary Sc(Fe1−xSix)2 Laves phases on their structural and magnetic properties. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron diffraction (ND) measurements carried out at different temperatures from 4.3 K up to about 700 K revealed that samples were single phase with cubic C15 structure for Si concentration x from 0.05 to 0.20 and hexagonal C14 structure for higher concentration. The results of 57Fe Mössbauer measurements showed that the Sc(Fe1−xSix)2 compounds with x ≤ 0.30 are ferrimagnetic at 4.3 K. At temperature 80 K in the samples with x = 0.20 and 0.30, a magnetic cluster spin-glass state has been observed, as ferrimagnetic long-range order disappears. Such picture was supported by the results of ND measurements carried out at 8 K, which confirmed the lack of long-range order for x above 0.10 and an occurrence of hyperfine field distributions in the corresponding Mössbauer spectra. At room temperature, samples with x ≥ 0.20 became paramagnetic. A substitution of Si atoms for Fe ones leads to a decreasing of mean values of hyperfine magnetic fields in samples under investigation. From the neutron diffraction pattern analysis of Sc(Fe0.90Si0.10)2Fe magnetic moment was determined as to be equal to 1.5 μB at 8 K. Combining this result with a value of hyperfine magnetic field on 57Fe probes, the hyperfine coupling constant A in Sc(Fe0.90Cu0.10)2 phases is estimated at about 11.6 T/μB at 8 K.
Mechanical alloying method was applied to prepare nanocrystalline iron-based Fe1−xZnx solid solutions with x in the range 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.05. The structural properties of the materials were investigated with the Mössbauer spectroscopy by measuring the room temperature spectra of 57Fe for as-obtained and annealed samples. The spectra were analyzed in terms of parameters of their components related to unlike surroundings of the iron probes, determined by different numbers of zinc atoms existing in the neighborhood of iron atoms. The obtained results gave clear evidence that after annealing process, the distribution of impurity atoms in the first coordination spheres of 57Fe nuclei is not random and it cannot be described by binomial distribution. The estimated, positive values of the short-range order parameters suggest clustering tendencies of Zn atoms in the Fe-Zn alloys with low zinc concentration. The results were compared with corresponding data derived from Calphad calculation and resulting from the cellular atomic model of alloys by Miedema.
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Dominik Grządziel, Krzysztof Kozak, Jadwiga Mazur, Bernard Połednik, Marzenna R. Dudzińska and Izabela Bilska
Correction factors for determination of annual average radon concentration in dwellings of Poland resulting from seasonal variability of indoor radon
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Somlai, J., Jobbágy, V., Kovács, J., Németh, Cs., & Kovács, T. (2008). Connection between radon emanation and some structuralproperties of coal-slag as building material
Tadeusz Szumiata, Marzena Rachwał, Tadeusz Magiera, Katarzyna Brzózka, Małgorzata Gzik-Szumiata, Michał Gawroński, Bogumił Górka and Joanna Kyzioł-Komosińska
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Muhammad Shoaib Sardar, Sohail Zafar and Zohaib Zahid
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