., Scharpé, S. and De Meester, I. 2003. Di-peptidyl-peptidase IV from bench to bedside: an update on structuralproperties, functions, and clinical aspects of the enzyme DPP IV. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences 40 : 209-294. 10.1080/713609354 Lambeir A.M. Durinx C. Scharpé S. De Meester I. 2003 Di-peptidyl-peptidase IV from bench to bedside: an update on structuralproperties, functions, and clinical aspects of the enzyme DPP IV Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences 40 209 294
Lawandi, J., Gerber-Lemaire, S., Juillerat
Quin, P., Cowie, A., Flavel, R., Keen, B., Macdonald, L., Morris, S., Singh, B., Young, I. and L. Van Zwieten (2014): Oil mallee biochar improves soil structuralproperties—a study with x-ray micro-CT. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 191, 142–149. 10.1016/j.agee.2014.03.022 Quin P. Cowie A. Flavel R. Keen B. Macdonald L. Morris S. Singh B. Young I. and L. Van Zwieten 2014 Oil mallee biochar improves soil structuralproperties—a study with x-ray micro-CT Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 191 142 – 149
Ramesh, K. and D.D. Reddy
Sara E. Vero, Mark G. Healy, Tiernan Henry, Rachel E. Creamer, Tristan G. Ibrahim, Patrick J. Forrestal, Karl G. Richards and Owen Fenton
threshold cannot be established from the treatments described herein. As the P -value is approaching the significance threshold, the methodological framework suggests that the optimum duration for this soil may be close to the 72-h treatment already applied. These results demonstrate the difference between two sites that have similar textures but different structuralproperties. Based on the outcomes of the current study, additional replicates of soil samples should be collected to facilitate longer durations if needed. The methodological framework defined herein
macroscopic material strength in the tensile domain (as a structuralproperty) is further determined by direct or, more frequently, indirect tension tests ( Wendner et al., 2015 ). The latter comprises 3-point-bending tests, and splitting tests. Furthermore, for a full fracture mechanical characterization, the initial fracture energy Gf or total fracture energy GF are required. Both can be determined, for example, by the work-of-fracture method using notched 3-point-bending test or wedge-splitting test data. More recently, the determination of fracture energy from peak
Arash Karami, Kiomars Sefidi, Jahangir Feghhi and Mohammad R. Marvie Mohadjer
Regeneration patches have key role in forest stand dynamic, new findings about the structural properties of patches can be useful in forest ecosystem management. We quantified the spatial and structural pattern of regeneration patches in old growth beech stands in a Gorazbon forest in the northern Iran. 461 patches were measured that covered 8.3% of total forest area. Patch size varied from 55 m2 to 2987 m2. The majority of the patches were small; 71.6% were less than the mean patch area of 1330 m2 and were belonged to sapling patches (N = 295), also 166 seedling patches were recorded. The results showed that the major distribution pattern of patches in different compartments was random and patchy. These results confirm this fact that human activity and natural disturbances should be providing a homogenous spatial distribution pattern of patches in the high spatial scale. However among different forest stand and compartments spatial pattern of patches change randomly, that can create the natural situation and near to nature structure in beech stands
Ivan Barka, Petr Lukeš, Tomáš Bucha, Tomáš Hlásny, Radim Strejček, Marek Mlčoušek and Štěpán Křístek
Pixels in Sentinel–2 MSI Images. Remote Sensing, 8: 666.
Homolová, L., Janoutová, R., Malenovský, Z., 2016: Evaluation of Various Spectral Inputs for Estimation of Forest Biochemical and StructuralProperties from Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy Data. ISPRS – International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLI-B7:961–966.
Jackson, R. D., 1983: Spectral Indices in n-Space. Remote Sensing of Environment, 13:409–421.
Joria, E.P., Ahearn, S. A., 1997: A comparison of the Spot and landsat TM satellite systems
In studies of individual organisation levels of organisms, the requirement of hollistic expression of structure and function is traditional despite the fact that structural direction prevails in studies. Less attention is paid to the place where function activity occurs in connection with the structure. This place is the surface - the medium where physical, chemical, biological and synergic processes interact. These surfaces are called ecologically active surfaces (EAS). From this standpoint, the surface is a place for energy exchange, which appears as mean studies of function and structural properties of the biological object.
The quantification of these areas taking into account the functional activities - (developed surface, the functional characteristics) to the desktop, or to the volume is the methodological starting point in the assessment of the country, or of its componens after the assessment of the energy potential of the environment. This ratio can be considered as the degree of heterogeneity of the conditions after taking into account the gradient of the environment.
We have achieved partial results related to EAS during the solution of tasks connected with the environmental evaluation of biotic components of a landscape, mainly during the investigation of aquatic biotopes, which are demonstrated on some examples.
Ehiokhilen Kevin Eifediyi, Samson Uduzei Remison, Henry Emeka Ahamefule, Kameel Olubukola Azeez and Phillip Olumide Fesobi
The soil of North-Central Nigeria is home to many plant products that are used as industrial raw materials, and after processing their waste are often left in drainage channels, which ultimately find their way into rivers and streams where they pollute these water bodies, and sometimes some of these materials are burnt, which further aggravates global warming. In addition, the soil of the region is characterized by low organic matter content because of annual bush burnings, which reduce the low humus content of soils. Watermelon requires a fertile soil, which is high in organic matter content, while infertile soils yield an increased production of male flowers at the expense of female flowers, which results in low fruit set. Therefore, a study was carried out at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm, Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria, during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014 to assess the effect of different organic materials on the growth and yield of watermelon. The factors imposed were a control, NPK fertilizer and five organic materials (neem seed cake (NSC), jatropha seed cake (JSC), poultry manure (PM), compost manure (CM), and cow dung (CD)). The experiment was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated thrice. Data collected on soil physico-chemical properties were: organic matter content, soil pH, organic carbon, total N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, bulk density (BD), micro porosity (MIP), macro porosity (MAP), and saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS). Plant parameters evaluated include growth (vine length and number of leaves) and yield (number of fruits per plant, fruit weight per plant, and yield ha−1). Results indicated that the organic matter content increased after the first year’s cropping and declined at the end of the study. The amended plots showed significantly higher values (P < 0.05) with respect to most soil physical properties (MIP), (MAP), and (KS), except the BD, where the values were lower. The bulk density particularly deteriorated on soils that were not organically amended. In addition, the soil chemical properties examined increased following the first year’s cropping, and thereafter declined at the end of the second-year cropping season. The response of watermelon showed that the two years’ yield data ranged between 334 and 402 t/ha, 306 and 390 t/ha, and 38.25 and 59.20 t/ha for NPK, poultry manure, and control treatments respectively. From the results, it was observed that the organic amendments were environmentally more friendly compared to the inorganic amendment (NPK fertilizer) in terms of positive effects on soil structural properties.
-Zavala DJ, Quintero-Ramos A, Jiménez-Castro J, Talamás-Abbud R, Barnard J, Balandrán-Quintana R R. Effect of stepwise blanching and calcium chloride solution on texture and structuralproperties of jalapeńo peppers in brine. Food Technol Biotechnol 2009; 47:464-470.
11. Tunde-Akintunde TY. Effect of pretreatment on drying time and quality of chilli pepper. J Food Proc Pres 2010; 34:595-608.
12. Rhim JW, Hong SI. Effect of water activity and temperature on the color change of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) powder. Food Sci. Biotechnol 2011