Ana Muñoz, Aritz Saitua, Mireya Becero, Cristina Riber, Katy Satué, Antonia Sánchez de Medina, David Argüelles and Cristina Castejón-Riber
symmetry with the sound forelimb in both timing and intensity of the electromyographic activation, reflecting an overall improvement in their functionality, which was not observed when animals were exercised on a land treadmill ( 16 ).
Up to now, the research carried out on horses with osteoarthritis has seemed to emphasise that exercise on a WT is a useful strategy to improve the functionality of the musculature of the affected limb, resulting in joint stabilisation and increased ROM. These results are very promising in sport horses because they can limit the need for
Marija Anđelković, Ivana Baralić, Brižita Đorđević, Jelena Kotur Stevuljević, Nenad Radivojević, Nenad Dikić, Sanja Radojević Škodrić and Mirjana Stojković
iron metabolism associated with a 1600 kilometre ultramarathon. Brit J Sport Med 1999; 33: 27–31.
12. Ostojić SM, Ahmetović Z. Indicators of iron status in elite soccer players during the sports season. Int J Lab Hematol 2009; 31: 447–52.
13. Robach P, Boisson RC, Vincent L, Lundby C, Moutereau S, Gergelé L, Michel N, Duthil E, Féasson L, Millet GY. Hemolysis induced by an extreme mountain ultramarathon is not associated with a decrease in total red blood cell volume. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2014; 24: 18–27.
14. Weight LM, Lein MK, Oakes TDN, Jacobs
Tomasz Chamera, Michał Spieszny, Tomasz Klocek, Dorota Kostrzewa-Nowak, Robert Nowak, Milena Lachowicz, Rafał Buryta, Krzysztof Ficek, Jerzy Eider, Waldemar Moska and Paweł Cięszczyk
Sport Sci Med 2013; 2: 3-8.
11. Hoff J. Training and testing physical capacities for elite soccer players. J Sports Sci 2005; 23: 573-82.
12. Popadic Gacesa JZ, Barak OF, Grujic NG. Maximal anaerobic power test in athletes of different sport disciplines. J Strength Cond Res 2009; 23: 751-5.
13. Manna I, Khanna GL, Chandra Dhara P. Effect of training on physiological and biochemical variables of soccer players of different age groups. Asian J Sports Med 2010; 1: 5-22.
14. Kruk J. Good scientific practice
Nenad Ponorac, Nela Rašeta, Dragan Radovanović, Amela Matavulj and Jelena Popadić-Gaćeša
Bone Metabolism Markers in Sportswomen with Menstrual Cycle Dysfunctions
It is a well known fact that sportswomen with irregular menstrual cycle are exposed to the risk of diminished bone mineral density, and consequentially osteoporosis may appear. Monitoring of the levels of biochemical markers of bone metabolism enables understanding of the dynamic changes during the bone remodeling process. The objectives of the conducted research were to determine the prevalence of menstrual dysfunctions in a sports-women sample and a control group, and also to determine the levels of bone metabolism markers in groups of women with menstrual dysfunctions. The women (n=117) were separated into two groups, the experimental group (S) (n=84) comprised of three subgroups of sports women (34 women who play ball game sports, 27 athletes and 23 sport dancers) and the control group (C) (n=34). To establish the menstrual profile and dysfunction of the menstrual cycle, we used a very detailed questionnaire. The level of mid-fragment osteocalcin (N-MID osteocalcin) as a marker of bone formation was deter mined, as well as β-Cross Laps (β-CTx-bone resorption marker) via the electro luminescent immunochemistry method on an Elecsys 1010 automated machine. Primary amenorrhea was found in 7 (8.33%) and oligomenorrhea in 11 (13.09%) sportswomen, which was statistically a much higher incidence (p<0.05) than in the control group (0/34). Values of bone metabolism markers showed a statistically significant difference in the level of the bone resorption marker β-CrossLaps between the groups of amenorrheic and oligomenorrheic sportswomen in comparison to the eumenorrheic women, both sportswomen and those in the control group. Accelerated resorption was accompanied with accelerated bone formation. Menstrual dysfunctions were statistically more present in the sports-women group than in the control group and were accompanied with accelerated bone metabolism from the point of view of the increase of bone metabolism markers level.
Bojana Popovic, Dejana Popovic, Djuro Macut, Ivana Bozic Antic, Tatjana Isailovic, Sanja Ognjanovic, Tamara Bogavac, Valentina Elezovic Kovacevic, Dusan Ilic, Mirjana Petrovic and Svetozar Damjanovic
21. Bosco C, Viru A. Testosterone and cortisol levels in blood of male sprinters, soccer players and cross-country skiers. Biol Sport 1998; 15(1): 3–8.
22. Broz P, Rajdl D, Novak J, Hromadka M, Racek J, Trefil L, Zeman V. High-sensitivity troponins after a standardized 2-hour treadmill run. J Med Biochem 2018; 37: 364–72.
23. Lucía A, Chicharro JL, Pérez M, Serratosa L, Bandrés F, Legido JC. Reproductive function in male endurance athletes: sperm analysis and hormonal profile. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1996; 81(6): 2627–36.
24. Grandys M, Majerczak J
Olivia da Rocha Mafra, Elirez da Silva, Tania Giani, Carlos Neves, Rauena Lopes and Estélio Dantas
RL, Fridé J. Mechanisms of muscle injury after eccentric contraction. Journal Science Medicine Sports 1999; 2 (3): 253-65.
Kisner C, Colby LA. Therapeutic exercise: foundations and techniques. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 2002.
Komi PV. Strength and power in sport. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2003.
Fox EL, Bowers RW, Foss ML. The physiological basis for exercise and sport. Madison: Brow & Benchmark, 1993.
Kjaer M, Lamberg H, Miller BF, Boushel R, Crameri R
different sport disciplines. J Strength Cond Res 2009; 23(3): 751–5. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a07a9a. 19387405
Popadic Gacesa JZ Barak O Grujic NG Maximal anaerobic power test in athletes of different sport disciplines J Strength Cond Res 2009 23 3 751–5 doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a07a9a
4 Cazzola R, Russo-Volpe S, Cervato G, Cestaro B. Biochemical assessments of oxidative stress, erythrocyte membrane fluidity and antioxidant status in professional soccer players and sedentary controls. Eur J Clin Invest 2003; 33(10): 924–30. 10.1046/j.1365
Alper Aslan, Yasar Salcı, Bilal Bicer, Nazan Savas and Nizami Duran
, Eddicks S, Schattke S, et al. Myocardial function in older male amateur marathon runners: assessment by tissue Doppler echocardiography, speckle tracking, and cardiac bio-markers. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2009 Jul 1;22(7):803-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2009.04.009
7. Eijsvogels TM, Hoogerwerf MD, Maessen MF, Seeger JP, George KP, Hopman MT, et al. Predictors of cardiac troponin release after a marathon. J Sci Med Sport. 2015 Jan 1;18(1):88-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2013.12.002
8. Tian Y, Nie J, Huang C, George KP. The kinetics of highly sensitive cardiac troponin T
Dorota Kostrzewa-Nowak, Rafał Buryta and Robert Nowak
as inflammation markers after the progressive test on mechanical treadmill until exhaustion among soccer players at the beginning of the preparatory phase to spring and autumn competition round.
Centre for Human Structural and Functional Research, Faculty of Physical Education and Health Promotion, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland was established to perform sport research in order to improve the routine training practice on scientific bases. We closely cooperate with a top league soccer club, namely Pogoń Szczecin S.A. From this point of view, recruiting
Irina Juhas, Branko Skof, Dejana Popović, Milan Matić and Nenad Janković
the preventive effects of aerobic exercise.
Materials and Methods
The research was conducted on a sample of 27 female students (mean age 20.5 ± 1 year; body mass 60.1 ± 5.5 kg, body height 168.1 ± 6.2 cm) in the second year of undergraduate studies at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, the University of Belgrade, whose instruction syllabus already contain the 8-week training program of preparation for cross-country running. All the subjects were healthy and had no neurological, orthopaedic, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, nor