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The Quality of Brand Products: Expected Attributes vs. Perceived Reality


Research purpose. The quality means a core attribute of the product. Based on empirical assessment of the consumer, it is ascertained if the products are of high quality. However, there may be considerable counterarguments against this assessment, because quality is a subjective characteristic. For this reason, a paradoxical situation arises – the same product that we consider to be a quality product someone else may regard as insufficient quality. What is considered standard quality level in some cases may be the assumed to have achieved world-class quality. This way the definition of quality product is very difficult. Brand is one of possible ways to differentiate products from one to another and at the same time it is one of possible ways to simplify consumer choices of choosing the best product. The brand can be the label for many consumers synonymous with quality. In this paper, the existence of difference between expected and delivered quality of brand products is analysed.

Design / Methodology / Approach. The survey of detection of the sources of the value of the brand was realized in 2018 in Slovak conditions. This primary source provided the base assessment of quality of branded sport clothes, cars, banks, cola drinks and brand products in general. Using factor analysis, supported by Cronbach’s alpha, verified by Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure and Bartlett's test of sphericity, comprehensive factors that enable comparison of expected attributes and perceived reality were constructed. The extraction method of factor analysis was principal component analysis, the rotation method was Varimax with Kaiser normalization. Then the factors were analysed by chi-square test and correspondence analysis.

Findings. The objective of this article was to detect the existence of differences between the expected and perceived quality of brand products in Slovak conditions. Comprehensive factors were constructed that contain information about quality of branded clothes, cars, banks, cola drinks and brand products in general. The dependence of expectations and reality was indicted and paper resolved the relations between individual categories of factors.

Originality / Value / Practical implications. The original survey of attitudes of Slovak consumer was made. The information about of notable sample was analysed, and this empirical study pointed out the real quality of brand products.

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Player transfer agreements of sports clubs – selected legal and tax issues on income tax for legal persons

Literatura Cajsel W., Charakter prawny karty zawodniczej , „Sport Wyczynowy” 2001, nr 5–6. Bartosiewicz A., Kubacki R., Ustawa o podatku dochodowym od osób fizycznych, Komentarz , Warszawa 2005. Borszowski P., Działalność gospodarcza w konstrukcji prawnej podatku , Warszawa 2010. Brzeziński B., Wykładnia prawa podatkowego , Gdańsk 2013. Dauter B., Gomułowicz A., Koszt podatkowy, aspekt teoretyczny i orzeczniczy , Warszawa 2008. Dmoch W., Podatek dochodowy od osób prawnych, komentarz , Legalis, Warszawa 2015

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Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Selected Slovak Brands on the Principle of DEA Models with the Possibility to Optimise them

. Journal of Air Transport Management, (66), pp. 36-41. Tasci, A. D., Hahm, J., & Breiter-Terry, D. (2018). Consumer-based brand equity of a destination for sport tourists versus non-sport tourists. Journal of Vacation Marketing, (24), pp. 62-78. Tasci, A. D. (2018). Testing the cross-brand and cross-market validity of a consumer based brand equity (CBBE) model for destination brands. Tourism management, (65), pp. 143-159. Trendy (2016). Spotrebitel chce byt prekvapovan. [Accessed 15.02.2018]. Available from Internet:

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Professional Development of School Principals in the Pilot Program of ‘Pedagogical Flexibility’: The Israeli Case

Communities: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Educational Change , 7 (4), 221-258. Tannehill, D. (2016). My Journey to Become a Teacher Educator. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy , 21 (1), 105-120. Vetter, A. (2012). Teachers as Architects of Transformation: The Change Process of an Elementary-School Teacher in a Practitioner Research Group. Teacher Education Quarterly , 39 (1), 27-49. Wenger, E. (2006) Communities of Practice: A Brief Introduction. Retrieved from:

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