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Documentation of the Contemporary Czech sport, Physical Education and Olympism: its Possibilities and Limits

Abstract

The present paper focuses on the documentation of the present and recent history of the Czech sport and physical education through the example of the Department of the Physical Education and Sport History at the National Museum. Apart from The Olympic Studies and Information Centre it is the only institution on the territory of the Czech lands which systematically preserves the history of this field of human activity on a long term basis. Unlike in the past it faces a number of difficulties which limit the documentation of this area of study. In spite of this inconvenience in many cases it is still possible to preserve the present of the Czech sport and physical education both from a general perspective and in terms of specific sport branches.

The study focuses on the theoretical and practical questions related to the possibilities and limits of the documentation of the present and recent history of the Czech sport and physical education. It also analyses the problems of the “present” in sports: how it is perceived, defined and its problematization in relation to a field, which is, given its nature and link to social changes, relatively young.

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Le formateur et son public dans le cadre de l’élaboration d’une simulation de type wargame sur plateau

Abstract

Le wargame est un outil de réflexion qui emploie des techniques créatives pour stimuler l’imagination des historiens, des décideurs et des analystes dans un but d’identification d’opportunités et de menaces. Son objet est de permettre à ses joueurs de recréer des situations spécifiques et, plus important encore, d’être capable d’explorer ce qui aurait pu (approche historique) ou pourrait (approche prospective) se passer si le joueur décidait de faire les choses différemment.

Issu d’une tradition assez longue de tentatives d’adaptation du jeu d’échecs à la simulation de bataille, le wargame s’applique depuis plus de deux siècles à la modélisation d’affrontements militaires à des fins de formation et d’élaboration de nouvelles stratégies ou tactiques. Par la suite, son champ d’application s’est étendu, il y a un peu plus d’un siècle, à la réflexion historico-militaire et depuis une soixantaine d’années à l’aide à la décision stratégique concernant des affrontements concurrentiels et économiques. Selon les moyens disponibles et les contextes de leurs mises en œuvre, les wargames prennent désormais quatre formes différentes : jeux de rôles de type grandeur nature, simulations informatiques, modélisation à base de figurines (ou sandbox) et modélisation sur des cartes ou plateaux.

Nous nous intéresserons, dans le cadre de ce travail, spécifiquement aux cas des wargames sur cartes et plateaux (board wargames). Nous les aborderons d’abord en tant que moyen de compréhension d’une situation historique et militaire, puis en tant que transposition à des fins d’analyse stratégique concurrentielle. Nous commencerons par en décrire les contours historiques et fondamentaux pratiques. Puis, nous montrerons comment le formateur peut adapter ou concevoir le “jeu” selon la situation qu’il doit modéliser ainsi qu’au public auquel il est destiné. Nous discuterons ainsi de la conception d’un wargame en fonction des objectifs visés, du développement du prototype et de la phase de tests en tant que première confrontation au public ciblé par le formateur. Nous présenterons aussi comment, la modélisation d’un wargame est transposable à la modélisation d’un marché. Au-delà de l’aspect ludique et des objectifs du jeu, nous montrerons comment les participants peuvent prendre part à sa conception. De cette manière, nous aborderons la réflexion autour de la conception du jeu qui, bien menée, permet d’appréhender dans son entier un environnement concurrentiel et ses acteurs et d’en comprendre tous ses mécanismes et ses enjeux.

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The Game of Seven: Glückshaus and Related Dice Games

Abstract

Glückshaus is a relatively modern version of the larger family of Games of Seven (games played with two six-sided dice and a stake board with fields usually numbered 2-12, often with an emphasized 7.). This paper looks at various historical versions of the game and shows how the modern Glückshaus version and its pecularities (e.g. a missing field for the number 4) came about when the dice game was combined with a stake board for a card game

Open access
A game that never was: Verney’s duodecimal chess

Abstract

A large chess variant played on a 12x12 board was inadvertently created by G. H. Verney, author of Chess Eccentricities, who seriously misinterpreted one of his sources, A. van der Linde’s Quellenstudien zur Geschichte des Schachspiels. Despite its serendipitous origins, the game, for which the name Verney’s Duodecimal Chess seems appropriate, is surprisingly playable. A set of rules is suggested since those provided by Verney are incomplete.

Open access
Zahraniční Výjezdy Československých Volejbalistů – Reflexe Zahraničí Očima Československých Sportovců v 50. a 60. Letech 20. Století

Abstract

The present paper focuses on the resumption of individual sports associations foreign relations after 1945, and how it was affected both by the resumption of international sport matches and by exit permits of Czechoslovak athletes. Travelling abroad used to be highly regulated in this period and not many citizens met the strict conditions applied. Athletes thus received a status of state representants, became to an extent, privileged and had to, therefore, meet certain requirements. They also gained access to information and insight unavailable to ordinary citizens. The study analyses the differences between the trips to the so-called “friendly”, i.e. communist, countries and to the West, from the amounts of money spent on representations abroad to the reception by the host countries. The study focuses mainly on volleyball representatives whose golden age spanned the 1950s and 1960s and who were therefore considered the sport elite promoting volleyball in the world, in this period. Athletes would commonly share their experiences from abroad and pass these on to their fellow citizens during organised discussions or personal meetings. After finishing their active career, some sports representatives were approached by foreign organisations and offered further engagement. Even such matters were, however, regulated by The Czechoslovak Union of Physical Education and Sport. The life experiences and paths of selected athletes, through documents, diaries and oral history interviews, map out their reflection on foreign countries and on the issue of otherness.

Open access
Measuring military university Students’ motivational goals in the domain of physical exercise

social cognitive models of motivation in sports (cf. Duda and Whitehead 1998 ). Examination of motivational goals in physical training is important, as different forms of goal preferences are related to generally relevant outcomes, e.g. perceived purposes of sport ( Duda 1989 ) and enjoyment of exercise ( Kilpatrick et al. 2003 ; for review, refer Papaioannou et al. 2012 ). It seems that many prior questionnaires have been designed to tap goal endorsement in contexts of physical education classes or competitive sports, conducted with samples of children or

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