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Documentation of the Contemporary Czech sport, Physical Education and Olympism: its Possibilities and Limits

Abstract

The present paper focuses on the documentation of the present and recent history of the Czech sport and physical education through the example of the Department of the Physical Education and Sport History at the National Museum. Apart from The Olympic Studies and Information Centre it is the only institution on the territory of the Czech lands which systematically preserves the history of this field of human activity on a long term basis. Unlike in the past it faces a number of difficulties which limit the documentation of this area of study. In spite of this inconvenience in many cases it is still possible to preserve the present of the Czech sport and physical education both from a general perspective and in terms of specific sport branches.

The study focuses on the theoretical and practical questions related to the possibilities and limits of the documentation of the present and recent history of the Czech sport and physical education. It also analyses the problems of the “present” in sports: how it is perceived, defined and its problematization in relation to a field, which is, given its nature and link to social changes, relatively young.

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Historical European Martial Art a crossroad between academic research, martial heritage re-creation and martial sport practices

Abstract

Historical European martial arts (HEMA) have to be considered an important part of our common European cultural heritage. Studies within this field of research have the potential to enlighten the puzzle posed by past societies, for example in the field of history, history of science and technology, or fields related to material culture.

The military aspects of history are still to be considered among the most popular themes of modern times, generating huge public interest. In the last few decades, serious HEMA study groups have started appearing all over the world – focusing on re-creating a lost martial art. The terminology “Historical European Martial Arts” therefore also refers to modem-day practices of ancient martial arts. Many of these groups focus on a “hands-on” approach, thus bringing practical experience and observation to enlighten their interpretation of the source material. However, most of the time, they do not establish inquiries based on scientific research, nor do they follow methodologies that allow for a critical analysis of the findings or observations.

This paper will therefore propose and discuss, ideas on how to bridge the gap between enthusiasts and scholars; since their embodied knowledge, acquired by practice, is of tremendous value for scientific inquiries and scientific experimentation. It will also address HEMA practices in the context of modern day acceptance of experimental (or experiential) processes and their value for research purposes and restoration of an historical praxis. The goal is therefore to sketch relevant methodological and theoretical elements, suitable for a multidisciplinary approach, to HEMA, where the “H” for “historical” matters.

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Fighting with the Longsword: Modern-day HEMA Practices

Claus Frederik Sørensen, ‘Historical European Martial Art: A crossroad between academic research martial heritage re-creation and martial sport practice’, Acta Periodica Duellatorum 3/1 (2015), 5-35. Majar, János and Zoltán Várhelyi, ‘Thibault and Science I: Measure, Distance and Proportions in the Circle’, Acta Periodica Duellatorum 2/1 (2014), 67-104. Martens, Krist, ‘Towards a New Approach in HEMA-Tournaments: Let's Fence Naked!’ (31 January 2014, < http://hroarr.com/towards-a-new-approach-in-hema-tournaments-lets-fence-naked/ > [queried 30 May 17

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Zahraniční Výjezdy Československých Volejbalistů – Reflexe Zahraničí Očima Československých Sportovců v 50. a 60. Letech 20. Století

Abstract

The present paper focuses on the resumption of individual sports associations foreign relations after 1945, and how it was affected both by the resumption of international sport matches and by exit permits of Czechoslovak athletes. Travelling abroad used to be highly regulated in this period and not many citizens met the strict conditions applied. Athletes thus received a status of state representants, became to an extent, privileged and had to, therefore, meet certain requirements. They also gained access to information and insight unavailable to ordinary citizens. The study analyses the differences between the trips to the so-called “friendly”, i.e. communist, countries and to the West, from the amounts of money spent on representations abroad to the reception by the host countries. The study focuses mainly on volleyball representatives whose golden age spanned the 1950s and 1960s and who were therefore considered the sport elite promoting volleyball in the world, in this period. Athletes would commonly share their experiences from abroad and pass these on to their fellow citizens during organised discussions or personal meetings. After finishing their active career, some sports representatives were approached by foreign organisations and offered further engagement. Even such matters were, however, regulated by The Czechoslovak Union of Physical Education and Sport. The life experiences and paths of selected athletes, through documents, diaries and oral history interviews, map out their reflection on foreign countries and on the issue of otherness.

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Rozhlasové Reportáže Josefa Laufera z Mistrovství Světa Ve Fotbale 1934 a Jejich Ohlas v Československu

Abstract

The present paper focuses on how the Czechoslovak society received and reacted to the live radio broadcasting of FIFA World Cup in 1934. The public listening to the running commentaries raised the interest in sports among new social strata and in new geographic areas of the then Czechoslovakia. Radio broadcastings undoubtedly provoked a higher sensibility of listeners, as the example examined in this paper of the spread of rumours concerning the death of several Czechoslovak players, proved. The last part of the present paper looks at how the broadcasting of FIFA World Cup became a Czechoslovakian site of memory.

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Společensko-Ekonomické Proměny Sportovních Spolků a Vznik Fotbalových Klubů v Pražských Městech a Předměstích Před Rokem 1914

Abstract

Football, the most popular game all over the world, reached the territory of todayʼs Czech Republic in the last decades of the 19th century. In Prague districts and suburbs especially, many Czech and German sport associations started to engage in this sport activity originally born in Britain. The sudden and long-lasting interruption of a positive development due to the mobilization in summer 1914 along with significant political and social changes following the end of First World War, isolated pre-war events and made of them the unique relict environment which forms the main topic of this paper. Leaving sports results aside, the study describes the period after 1900 in which football clubs were established, the enthusiastic amateur transformed into a professional player, loyalty to different teams stemmed on the basis of nationality and social status and football moved from the suburbs’ playgrounds to newly-built, larger and better-quality arenas.

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The Future of Historical European Martial Arts Studies. A discussion

Cultural Studies , ed. by Kuan-Hsing Chen and David Morley (London: Routledge, 1996), pp. 261-74. Jaquet, Daniel, ‘The Researcher Status in Historical European MArtial Arts Communities of Practitioners’, in Martial Arts Studies in Germany - Defining and Crossing Disciplinary Boundaries , ed. by Martin Joh Meyer (Hamburg: Czwalina, 2016), pp. 39-50. Jaquet, Daniel, and Claus Frederik Sorenson, ‘Historical European Martial Art - a Crossroad between Academic Research, Martial Heritage Re-Creation and Martial Sport Practices.’, Acta Periodica Duellatorum , 3

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