treated as a pipeline with many variations in cross-section and shape. During the normal operation of vehicle powertrains, especially ICEs with turbochargers, there are periodic interchanges with significant changes in pulsation frequency [ 7 , 8 , 9 ]. The tuning inlets and outlets of vehicle systems are also a consideration. These systems need to be tuned to provide good external acoustics, especially for limousines and sport cars.
Effective methods for avoiding pulsation and resonance include:
Active Duct Damping . This method involves the mounting of
Composite structures are one of the most commonly used structural materials that have been increasingly used in the recent years with significant developments in the aviation, automotive, wind power, sport equipment and transport industries. This is due to the growing demand for lightweight and high-strength materials in order to meet the stringent requirements of modern industry. In fact, however, the rapid development and the use of composite structures began truly after the production of synthetic resins whose adhesion properties are the