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The aim of this study was to describe the proportion of floristic geoelements and plant biodiversity in the macroregions of Transdanubia. The core data source used for the analysis was the database of the Hungarian Flora Mapping Programme. The analysed data were summarized in tables and distribution maps. The percentage of continental elements was higher in dry areas, whereas the proportion of circumboreal elements was higher in humid and rainy parts of Transdanubia. According to the climatic zones, the highest value of continental geoelement group occurred in the forest-steppe zone. The plant species diversity and geoelements were analysed also on a lower scale, with Transdanubia specified into five macroregions. The highest diversity values were found in the Transdanubian Mountain and West-Transdanubian regions because of the climatic, topographic, and habitat diversity.


The paper presents the results of an investigation of physical-chemical features of water as well as rotifer and crustacean abundance and diversity measures, relating to the taxonomic richness and species diversity index, in three lobelia lakes differing in trophic status and morphometric features. The main purpose of this study was to establish the diversity of zooplankton communities in the open water area of lobelia lakes, including extracting species common for each lake and also to find environmental predictors which are responsible for the development of zooplankton communities. Despite the fact that the three studied lakes are of the same origin, located in the same vicinity and have generally similar environmental factors, zooplankton community structure revealed a great variation in reference to species diversity (only ca. 20% of the species were common for all lakes) and particularly in inhabiting species. Obrowo Lake had the most diverse assemblages of both rotifers and crustaceans compared to Modre and Pomysko lakes. In the taxonomic structure species that are rare for the Polish fauna, such as e.g. Holopedium gibberum and Heterocope appendiculata, occurred. Even though the examined lobelia lakes are ecosystems that undergo varying human-induced impacts, they still remain taxonomically very variable aquatic ecosystems, containing rare species of very high ecological status. The observed symptoms of deterioration of water quality, reflected in the zooplankton biocoenotic features, showed that the best conditions were attributed to Obrowo Lake in comparison with the two remaining lakes – Modre and Pomysko. Total nitrogen and chlorophyll a concentration were decisive for the distribution of zooplankton species in Pomysko and Obrowo lakes, while in case of Modre lake water reactivity and conductivity were of higher impact.

livestock grazing and human uses on herbaceous species diversity in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forests, Guilan, Masal, northern Iran. Journal of Forestry Research , 25 (2): 455−462. E shaghi R ad , J., V aladi , G., Z argaran , M.R., 2017. Effects of man-made disturbances on understory plant richness of oak forests in Iran. Folia Oecologica , 44: 61–68. E temad , S., Z obeiry , M., N amiranian , M., G hahramany , L., 2014. Determine the most appropriate surface sampling method for estimating spiral tree diversity in the forests of northern Zagros. In

–316. Braun-Blanquet, J. 1964: Pflanzensoziologie, Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde, 3rd edn. Springer-Verlag, Wien, 865 pp. Burton, M. L., Samuelson, L. J. & Pan, S. 2005: Riparian woody plant diversity and forest structure along an urban-rural gradient. Urban Ecosystems 8: 93–106. Case, T. J. 1990: Invasion resistance arises in strongly interacting species-rich model competition communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA 87(24): 9610–9614. Chen, X., Wang, W., Liang, H., Liu, X. & Da, L. 2014: Dynamics of ruderal species diversity under the rapid

Gleboznawczego Oddział w Rzeszowie , 11: 96-101. Kędziora A., Karg J. 2010. Zagrożenia i ochrona różnorodności biologicznej. Nauka , 4: 107-114. Kempton R. A., Taylor L. R. 1976. Models and statistics for species diversity. Nature , 262: 818-820. Kim K. C., Byrne L. B. 2006. Biodiversity loss and the taxonomic bottleneck: emerging biodiversity science. Ecological Research , 21: 794-810. Klenner W., Arsenault A., Brockerhoff E. G., Vyse A. 2009. Biodiversity in forest ecosystems and landscapes: A conference to discuss future directions in biodiversity management for

infection of Fraxinus angustifolia by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus in Slovakia. Baltic Forestry, 23:52–55. Keesing, F., Holt, R. D., Ostfeld, R. S., 2006: Effects of species diversity on disease risk. Ecology Letters, 9:485–498. Kiffer, E., Morelet, M., 2000: The Deuteromycetes – mitosporic fungi: classification and generic keys. Enfield, Science Publishers, 273 p. Kirisits, T., Schwanda, K., 2015: First definite report of natural infection of Fraxinus ornus by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus . Forest Pathology, 45:430–432. Kowalski, T., Czekaj, A., 2010: Symptomy chorobowe i


This treatise investigates the poorly studied bird fauna of Mitidja Plain (Northern Algeria), with particular notes on the occurrence and expansion of new and alien species. Direct observations, supported by ornithological surveys carried out by Progressive Frequential Sampling (PFS), a version of a point count method, have allowed us to identify 125 bird species. These represent 31% of all species known from Algeria. The species recorded belong to 14 orders, 39 families and 37 genera. According to their biogeographic origins, 36 are Mediterranean, 32 Palearctic, 24 Holarctic, 17 European and 16 of European-Turkestani origin. The Mitidja Plain holds 60 resident-breeder species (48% of all registered species) and is a transit zone for many migratory species (summer and winter migrants constituting 20% and 14% of the total, respectively) and occasional visitors (RA = 12%). Among recently expanding species (introduced or local), the Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto and Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus, sampled by the spot-mapping method, experienced a very rapid population growth. The first observations of the former were made in 1996 in Algiers. Its numbers experienced a steep increase after 2002, starting from 5.75 pairs/10 ha to reach up to 31.5 pairs/10 ha in 2006. The same applies for the Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri, surveyed by direct-count at roosting sites. This species has been able to increase and reproduce since its first introduction into the wild in 1996. The increase in study species populations, especially the Rose-ringed Parakeet, may derive from good weather conditions that favoured the species through providing better feeding conditions, thus high reproduction outcomes.

Trichotheliales ordo novus. Bibliotheca Lichenologica , 57: 161-186. Jüriado I., Paal J., Liira J. 2003. Epiphytic and epixylic lichen species diversity in Estonian natural forests. Biodiversity and Conservation , 12: 1587-1607. Kauff F., Büdel B. 2005. Ascoma ontogeny and apothecial anatomy in the Gyalectaceae ( Ostropales, Ascomycota ) support the re-establishment of the Coenogoniaceae. Bryologist , 108(2): 272-281. Kiszka J., Kościelniak R. 2000. Stan zachowania Lobaria pulmonaria i związku Lobarion w polskiej części międzynarodowego rezerwatu biosfery "Karpaty

Bieszczadach [The importance of primeval and natural forests for preservation of species diversity of lichens in the Bieszczady Mts.]. Roczniki Bieszczadzkie , 16: 6-76. Kovach W.L. 2010. MVSP - A Multivariate Statistical Package for Windows, ver. 3.2. Pentraeth, Wales, U.K, Kovach Computing Services Kubiak D. 2009. Porosty rezerwatu „Dziektarzewo” [Lichenes of the ‘Dziektarzewo’ naturere serve]. Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody , 28 (2): 45 55. Kubiak D. 2011. Stan zachowania bioty porostów w rezerwatach „Dęby Napiwodzkie” i „Koniuszanka II” na Pojezierzu Olsztyńskim


Study of the effects of climate change on upper tree limit has mainly focused on the diversity of tree species as a result of the ability of species to tolerate temperature and moisture changes as well as some effects of disturbance regime changes. The tree species diversity changes due to climate change has been analysed via gap model and biodiversity indices. Gap models are individually based on simulations of establishment, growth, and mortality of each tree on the forest plot. Input ecological data for model calculations have been taken from the permanent research plots located in primeval forests in mountainous regions in Slovakia. The results of regional scenarios of the climatic change for the territory of Slovakia have been used, from which the values according to the CGCM3.1 (global) model, KNMI and MPI (regional) models. Model results for conditions of the climate change scenarios suggest a shift of the upper forest limit to the region of the present subalpine zone, in supramontane zone. The most significant tree species diversity changes have been identified for the upper tree line and current belt of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo) occurrence. Hill’s index of biodiversity in the upper forest line increased by 30 – 35% for horizon of 2050, resp. by 45 – 50% modeled for the horizon of 2075. Calculated values of Shannon’s index show an even higher increase due to climate change. For horizon 2050 is a roughly of three fold increase and horizon for 2075 by almost fivefold increase in the value of the index. Results from the gap model indicate the increase of tree species diversity 2 – 2,5 times.