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The aim of this study was to describe the proportion of floristic geoelements and plant biodiversity in the macroregions of Transdanubia. The core data source used for the analysis was the database of the Hungarian Flora Mapping Programme. The analysed data were summarized in tables and distribution maps. The percentage of continental elements was higher in dry areas, whereas the proportion of circumboreal elements was higher in humid and rainy parts of Transdanubia. According to the climatic zones, the highest value of continental geoelement group occurred in the forest-steppe zone. The plant species diversity and geoelements were analysed also on a lower scale, with Transdanubia specified into five macroregions. The highest diversity values were found in the Transdanubian Mountain and West-Transdanubian regions because of the climatic, topographic, and habitat diversity.

–316. Braun-Blanquet, J. 1964: Pflanzensoziologie, Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde, 3rd edn. Springer-Verlag, Wien, 865 pp. Burton, M. L., Samuelson, L. J. & Pan, S. 2005: Riparian woody plant diversity and forest structure along an urban-rural gradient. Urban Ecosystems 8: 93–106. Case, T. J. 1990: Invasion resistance arises in strongly interacting species-rich model competition communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA 87(24): 9610–9614. Chen, X., Wang, W., Liang, H., Liu, X. & Da, L. 2014: Dynamics of ruderal species diversity under the rapid

livestock grazing and human uses on herbaceous species diversity in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forests, Guilan, Masal, northern Iran. Journal of Forestry Research , 25 (2): 455−462. E shaghi R ad , J., V aladi , G., Z argaran , M.R., 2017. Effects of man-made disturbances on understory plant richness of oak forests in Iran. Folia Oecologica , 44: 61–68. E temad , S., Z obeiry , M., N amiranian , M., G hahramany , L., 2014. Determine the most appropriate surface sampling method for estimating spiral tree diversity in the forests of northern Zagros. In

Gleboznawczego Oddział w Rzeszowie , 11: 96-101. Kędziora A., Karg J. 2010. Zagrożenia i ochrona różnorodności biologicznej. Nauka , 4: 107-114. Kempton R. A., Taylor L. R. 1976. Models and statistics for species diversity. Nature , 262: 818-820. Kim K. C., Byrne L. B. 2006. Biodiversity loss and the taxonomic bottleneck: emerging biodiversity science. Ecological Research , 21: 794-810. Klenner W., Arsenault A., Brockerhoff E. G., Vyse A. 2009. Biodiversity in forest ecosystems and landscapes: A conference to discuss future directions in biodiversity management for

infection of Fraxinus angustifolia by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus in Slovakia. Baltic Forestry, 23:52–55. Keesing, F., Holt, R. D., Ostfeld, R. S., 2006: Effects of species diversity on disease risk. Ecology Letters, 9:485–498. Kiffer, E., Morelet, M., 2000: The Deuteromycetes – mitosporic fungi: classification and generic keys. Enfield, Science Publishers, 273 p. Kirisits, T., Schwanda, K., 2015: First definite report of natural infection of Fraxinus ornus by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus . Forest Pathology, 45:430–432. Kowalski, T., Czekaj, A., 2010: Symptomy chorobowe i

Trichotheliales ordo novus. Bibliotheca Lichenologica , 57: 161-186. Jüriado I., Paal J., Liira J. 2003. Epiphytic and epixylic lichen species diversity in Estonian natural forests. Biodiversity and Conservation , 12: 1587-1607. Kauff F., Büdel B. 2005. Ascoma ontogeny and apothecial anatomy in the Gyalectaceae ( Ostropales, Ascomycota ) support the re-establishment of the Coenogoniaceae. Bryologist , 108(2): 272-281. Kiszka J., Kościelniak R. 2000. Stan zachowania Lobaria pulmonaria i związku Lobarion w polskiej części międzynarodowego rezerwatu biosfery "Karpaty

Bieszczadach [The importance of primeval and natural forests for preservation of species diversity of lichens in the Bieszczady Mts.]. Roczniki Bieszczadzkie , 16: 6-76. Kovach W.L. 2010. MVSP - A Multivariate Statistical Package for Windows, ver. 3.2. Pentraeth, Wales, U.K, Kovach Computing Services Kubiak D. 2009. Porosty rezerwatu „Dziektarzewo” [Lichenes of the ‘Dziektarzewo’ naturere serve]. Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody , 28 (2): 45 55. Kubiak D. 2011. Stan zachowania bioty porostów w rezerwatach „Dęby Napiwodzkie” i „Koniuszanka II” na Pojezierzu Olsztyńskim


Study of the effects of climate change on upper tree limit has mainly focused on the diversity of tree species as a result of the ability of species to tolerate temperature and moisture changes as well as some effects of disturbance regime changes. The tree species diversity changes due to climate change has been analysed via gap model and biodiversity indices. Gap models are individually based on simulations of establishment, growth, and mortality of each tree on the forest plot. Input ecological data for model calculations have been taken from the permanent research plots located in primeval forests in mountainous regions in Slovakia. The results of regional scenarios of the climatic change for the territory of Slovakia have been used, from which the values according to the CGCM3.1 (global) model, KNMI and MPI (regional) models. Model results for conditions of the climate change scenarios suggest a shift of the upper forest limit to the region of the present subalpine zone, in supramontane zone. The most significant tree species diversity changes have been identified for the upper tree line and current belt of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo) occurrence. Hill’s index of biodiversity in the upper forest line increased by 30 – 35% for horizon of 2050, resp. by 45 – 50% modeled for the horizon of 2075. Calculated values of Shannon’s index show an even higher increase due to climate change. For horizon 2050 is a roughly of three fold increase and horizon for 2075 by almost fivefold increase in the value of the index. Results from the gap model indicate the increase of tree species diversity 2 – 2,5 times.

).Publ. House of the Moscow University, Moscow, 384 pp. Ruprecht, E., Szabo, A., Enyedi. M. Z. & Dengler, J. 2009: Steppe-like grasslands in Transylvania (Romania): Characterisation and influence of management on species diversity and composition. Tuexenia 29: 353-368. Rusina, S. & Kiehl, K. 2010: Long-term changes in species diversity in abandoned calcareous grasslands in Latvia. Tuexenia 30: 467-486. Sanda, V., Ollerer, K. & Burescu, P. 2008: The phytocoenoses of Romania. Syntaxonomy, structure, dynamics and development. Edit.Ars Docendi, Bucharest, 570 pp. Schmithusen, J

patterns and diversity along an altitudinal and a grazing gradient in the Jabal al Akhdar mountain range of northern Oman. Journal of Arid Environments 73: 1035-1045. Cesa, A. & Paruelo, J. M. 2011: Changes in vegetation structure induced by domestic grazing in Patagonia (Southern Argentina). Journal of Arid Environments 75: 1129-1135. Chang, X., Zhao, W. & Zhao, A. 2004: Species diversity of pasture community at different altitude levels in Qilian Mountains. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 15(9): 1599-1603 [in Chinese]. Connell, J. H. 1978: Diversity in tropical rain