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, H. (2000) Field Guide to Medicinal Plants of Devarayanadurga Forest. Karnataka Forest Department publishing, Tumkur Division, Karnataka. Champion and Seth’s classification, 1986. Briggs, J. (2003) The biogeographic and tectonic history of India. Journal of Biogeography, 30, 381-388. Cannon, C.H., Peart, D.R. & Leighton, M. (1998) Tree species diversity in commercially logged bornean rainforest. Science, 281, 1366-1368. Champion, H.G. & Seth, S.K. (1986) A Revised Survey of Forest Types of India. Pages 6-18, Government of India, Delhi. Chandrashekara, U

. ANU Journal of Natural Sciences, 2(1), 27-39. Reddy, C.S. & Ugle, P. (2008) Tree species diversity and distribution patterns in tropical forest of Eastern Ghats, India: a case study. Life Science Journal, 5(4), 87-93. Shannon, C.E. & Weiner, W. (1963) The Mathematical Theory of Communication. The University of Illinois Press, Urbana IL. Singh, S., Malik, Z.A. & Sharma, C.M. (2016) Tree species richness, diversity, and regeneration status in different oak (Quercus spp.) dominated forests of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Journal of Asia- Pacific Biodiversity, 9(3), 3293

, H.P. (1997) A Textbook of Soil Analysis. New Delhi: Vikas Pub. Ltd. Bever, J.D., Morton, J.B., Antonovics, J. & Schultz, P.A. (1996) Host-dependent sporulation and species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a mown grassland. J. Ecol., 84, 71-82. Bever, J.D., Schultz, P.A., Pringle, A. &Morton, J.B. (2001) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: more diverse than meets the eye, and the ecological tale of why. BioScience, 51, 923-931. Brady, N.C. (1974) 8th edn. The Nature and Properties of Soils. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc. Bray, R.H. & Kurtz, L


Poor rangeland management, especially overstocking and under-burning coupled with climate change on southern African savannas, have brought about a serious ecological problem of bush encroachment. Bush encroachment leads to many ecological implications such as extirpation or extinction of plant species and a colonisation by opportunistic species leading to unwanted changes in plant species composition, structure and loss of species diversity. Furthermore, bush encroachment has a negative impact on the country’s progress in terms of conservation efforts, economic stability and livelihood. Namibian livestock ranchers forego an estimated N$ 700 million loss yearly linked to bush encroachment. Studies focusing on particular bush encroacher species enable the devise of ecologically sound management strategies by land manager, farmers and scientists for the prevention and control of bush encroachment. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the main encroacher species and their relationship to the environmental factors along an aridity gradient on Kalahari sands in central Namibia. Results disclosed that Acacia erioloba E.Mey., Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth. ssp. dentines (Burch.) Brenan, Combretum collinum Fresen., Terminalia sericea Burch. Ex DC., Grewia spp., Bauhinia petersiana Bolle ssp. macrantha (Oliv.) Brummitt & J.H. Ross were the main encroacher species, and mean annual rainfall was the main environmental factor influencing their distribution. Nanophanerophyte from different encroacher species were recorded mainly from 400 mm to 500 mm mean annual rainfall, mesophanerophyte recorded from 280 mm to 450 mm, while microphanerophyte were widely distributed over the rainfall gradient. Bush encroachment was recorded at 440 mm mainly due to the poor rangeland management. Information from this study should be used as a baseline for conservation and restoration attempts towards savanna rangelands.

E.H. (1982) Areography: Geografical Strategies of Species. Pergamon Press Oxford, Rohde K. (1996) Rapoport’s Rule is a Local Phenomenon and Cannot Explain Latitudinal Gradients in Species Diversity. Biodiversity Letters , 3, 10. Seto K.C., Guneralp B., & Hutyra L.R. (2012) Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 109, 16083–16088. Shannon C.E. (1948) A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System Technical Journal , 27, 379–423. Shmida A. & Wilson M

. & Cieloszczyk, P. (2011) The impact of beaversʼ (Castor fiber L.) lodges on vascular plant species diversity in forest landscape. Pol. J. Ecol., 59(1), 63–73. Rurek, M. (2013) Lokalne zmiany środowiska przyrodniczego wywołane działalnością Bobra Europejskiego (Castor fiber L. w okolicy Trzebcin (powiat tucholski). J. Health Sci., 3(15), 119–127. (in Polish) Rurek, M., Krupa, A., Hojan, M. & Giętkowski, T. (2013) Wpływ działalności bobrów na rzeźbę małych dolin na przykładzie doliny Gajdówki, południowe Bory Tucholskie, Polska. J. Health- Sci., 3(15), 257–266. (in Polish

vertebrate clades. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22, 422-432. Rescher, N. (2000) Process Philosophy - A Survey of Basic Issues. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh. Reiners W.A. & Lockwood, J.A. (2010) Philosophical Foundations for the Practice of Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Richardson, D.M. & Whittaker, J.R. (2010) Conservation biogeography-foundations, concepts and challenges. Diversity and Distributions, 16, 313-320. Rickleffs, R.E. (2012) Naturalists, Natural History, and The Nature of Species Diversity. American Naturalist, 179, 423

terminology to define ‘invasive’ species. Diversity and Distribution, 10, 135-141. Dagnall, J.L., Duckett, J.G. & Gurnell, J. (1995) A simple negative staining technique for the identification of mammal hairs. Journal of Zoology, London, 237, 670-675. Debrot, S., Fivaz, G., Mermod, C. & Weber, J.M. (1982) Atlas des pois de mammifères d’Europe. Institut de Zoologie de l’Université de Neuchàtel, Paris, France. Duncan, R.P., Blackburn, T.M. & Sol, D. (2003) The ecology of bird introductions. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 34, 71-98. Gaggi, A. & Paci, A

, J.C. (2000) Bird census techniques. Elsevier. Blair, R.B. (1996) Land use and avian species diversity along an urban gradient. Ecological Applications, 6, 506–519. Blair, R.B. (2001) Creating a homogenous avifauna. In J.M. Marzluff, J.M. Bowman & Donell, M. (Eds.), Avian Ecology and Conservation is an Urbanizing World (pp. 459-486). Boston: Kluwer Academic Press. Bonier, F., Martin, P.R. & Wingfield, J.C. (2007) Urban birds have a broader environmental tolerance. Biology Letters, 3, 670–673. Brown, J.H. (1984) On the relationship between abundance and

Natural and Human Factors: The Case of Brown Bears in Northern Spain. Conservation Biology , 17(5), pp. 1276–1289. Available at: . Nüchel, J. et al., 2018. Snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus): potential distribution and its implication for conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation , 27(6), pp. 1517–1538. Available at: . Pekin, B.K. & Pijanowski, B.C., 2012. Global land use intensity and the endangerment status of mammal species. Diversity and Distributions , 18(9), pp. 909–918. Available