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. Oxford: Blackwell Sciences. Moguel, P. & Toledo V.M. (1999). Biodiversity conservation in traditional coffee systems of Mexico. Conserv. Biol ., 13(1), 11−21. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.97153.x. Molla, A. & Asfaw Z. (2014). Woody species diversity under natural forest patches and adjacent enset-coffee based Agroforestry in the Midland of Sidama Zone, Ethiopia. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation , 6(10), 708−723. Molla, A. & Kewessa G. (2015). Woody species diversity in traditional agroforestry practices of

forest structure in Slanske vrchy Mts. on composition of bird assemblage (in Slovak). MSc. thesis, Faculty of Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia. Heck, K.L., Jr., Van Belle, G. & Simberloff D. (1975). Explicit calculation of the rarefaction diversity measurement and the determination of sufficient sample size. Ecology, 56, 1459-1461. DOI: 10.2307/1934716. Hurlbert, S.H. (1971). The non-concept of species diversity: the critique and alternative parameters. Ecology, 52, 577−586. DOI: 10.2307/1934145 IBCC, (1969). Recommendations for an international

.U. (2010). Disturbance effects on species diversity and functional diversity in riparian and upland plant communities. Ecology, 91, 28-35. DOI: 10.1890/08-0887.1. Blažková, D. (2003). Riverine vegetation of the Berounka River two months after flood in August 2002 (in Czech). Bohemia Centralis, 26, 35-44. Bliss, L.C. & Cantlon J.E. (1957). Succession on River Alluvium in Northern Alaska. Am. Midl. Nat., 58,452-469. Buček, A. & Štykar J. (2001). Geobiocoenological mapping in the Odra river watershed riparian zone of streams (in Czech). In Niva z

-term fertilization: changes in functional group abundance drive changes in species richness. Oecologia, 173(4), 1513−1520. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-013-2722-8. Eilts, J.A., Mittelbach, G.G., Reynolds, H.L. & Gross K.L. (2011). Resource heterogeneity, soil fertility, and species diversity: effects of clonal species on plant communities. Am. Nat., 177(5), 574−588. DOI: 10.1086/659633. Elgersma, A., Schlepers, H. & Nassiri M. (2000). Interactions between perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) under contrasting nitrogen availability: productivity

). Belgorod State University Scientific Bulletin, Natural Sciences, 30(3), 74−81. Barbarich, A. (1977). Geobotanical subdivision of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Kyiv: Science. Batary, P., Fronczek, S., Normann, C., Scherber, C. & Tscharntke T. (2014). How do edge effect and tree species diversity change bird diversity and avian nest survival in Germany’s largest deciduous forest? For. Ecol. Manag., 319, 44−50. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2014.02.004. Bergner, A., Avci, M., Eryiğit, H., Jansson, N., Niklasson, M., Westerberg, L. & Milberg P. (2015). Influences of forest type and

places of industrial granite mining and recreational activities. Studia Biologica, 10(2), 163–174. Lavrov, V., Blinkova, O., Miroshnik, N. & Ivanenko O. (2016b). Synecological principles of diagnostics of transformation of structural and functional organization of forest ecosystems in the evolutionary aspect. Factors in Experimental Evolution Organisms, 18, 186−190. MacArthur, R. & MacArthur J. (1961). On bird species diversity. Ecology, 42, 594−598. DOI: 10.2307/1932254. Magurran, E. (1998). Ecological diversity and its measurement . New Jersey: Princeton


Communities of epigeic beetles were studied using pitfall trapping on 10 plots with the different stage of decline and clear-cut plots without coarse woody debris. Species richness (number of all species, S), total species diversity as the Shannon-Wiener’s index (H) and equitability (e) were calculated in the DBreleve. The Ward’s method of hierarchical agglomerative classification with Euclidean distance was used for the differentiation of the communities on the plots. Species data for this analyse were represented by logarithm-transformed activities [log(x+1)]. The single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical testing of differences in structural parameters (e.g. species richness and diversity) amongst distinguished groups of the plots. The species diversity and activity differs on glades without trees and coarse woody debris. The highest number of species was found in clear-cut areas. The lowest number of species was found on the plots with the living forest particularly invaded by bark beetle. This fact is caused by the fact that the clear-cut plots are invaded by ubiquitous and anthropotolerant species with good migration possibilities. These species are adapted to habitats without trees and are able to leave even in the habitats with very sparse or without vegetation. Species living in the forest even under the bark beetle attack are often stenotopic and adapted to the forest microclimate (higher humidity and low average temperature). These species are very sensitive to great difference in the daily changes of microclimate. The study of beetle communities support the hypothesis that the keeping of dead tree stands on plots after bark beetle outbreak is better for biodiversity conservation than the cutting down of trees and the abolishment of stems.


Riparian stands along streams are important landscape elements – biocorridors, allowing the dispersal of many small terrestrial mammals. Streams are, however, also barriers limiting dispersal, which leads to isolation and population-genetic changes. Communities of small terrestrial mammals (Eulipotyphla, Rodentia) were studied in 2004 to 2006 on five watercourses of varying widths in Central European cultural landscape situated in South Bohemia (Czech Republic). In total, 547 individuals from 10 species were captured by the Capture-Mark-Recapture method (CMR). Yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus) were eu-dominant species at all locations. Species diversity and equitability rose with the degree of the barrier – proportional to the width of the stream.

The terrestrial mobility of selected species was also assessed. Apodemus flavicollis indicated overall highest values of mobility, and Myodes glareolus males also scored higher values, however, the width of the stream did not correlate with mobility in these species. The animals crossed water-courses on the order of tens of meters wide in the period of 3 months. The frequency of crossing of Apodemus flavicollis decreased exponentially with the width of the stream and was dependent on population density.


Detailed limnological study of the Lake Srebrno (Serbia) bottom fauna was performed in March 2007. Investigations included qualitative, quantitative, and saprobiological analysis of bottom fauna communities, physical and chemical analysis of sediments and determination of chlorophyll a concentration, as well as saprobic and trophic status analyses. Samples were collected at eighteen sites distributed along a shoreline and in deeper sections of the lake. Twenty taxa from nine macroinvertebrate groups were recorded. Family Chironomidae had the biggest index of participation, the highest species diversity and the largest density of populations in benthocenoses of Lake Srebrno. Faunistic similarity between sites was estimated according to Sorensen’s Quotient of Similarity (QS). The majority of benthocenoses - 56% showed a medium level of faunistic similarity (QS = 21-60%), and 42% of benthocenoses showed a high level of faunistic similarity (QS = 61-100%). The classification of Lake Srebrno based on saprobic and trophic levels was assessed. Saprobic level was in the range from alpha-meso- to poly-alpha-mesosaprobity. The water quality of the lake ranged from class III and between IV and III class. Generally, Lake Srebrno had eutrophic status with the gradation to hypertrophy.


In last decades, the number of non-native land snails increased up to 15 percentages; they create more than eight percent of all the Slovakian species. Trend of newly established snail species corresponds with increases in the average temperatures as well as the intensity of foreign trade, suggesting a synergistic effect of both climatic conditions and socioeconomic factors. The research of the open-air garden centres in Slovakia confirmed both factors. We report here some of the newly established populations of sixteen mollusc species. In the old garden centres, the number of species as well as the number of individuals decreased slightly. Area of the garden centre has a very high impact on both abundance and species diversity. The size and age of garden centre proportionally influences the composition of mollusc assemblages. Two new species Cornu aspersum and Cepaea nemoralis were noticed for the first time in Slovakia. The recent findings of the introduced populations demonstrate the potential of this snail to colonise new areas.