Mehrdad Ghodskhah Daryayi, Mohammad Naghi Adel, Mohaddese Seddighi Pashaki and Javad Sadegh Kuhestani
Adel M.N., Pourbabaei H., Omidi A., C Dey D. 2012b. Forest structure and woody plant species composition after a wildfire in beech forests in the north of Iran. Journal of Forestry Research, DOI 10.1007/ s11676-012-0316-7.
Adel M.N., Pourbabaei H., Omidi A., Pothier D. 2012a. Long-term effect of fire on herbaceous speciesdiversity in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forests in northern Iran. Forestry Studies in China, 14 (4), 260-267.
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Chattanong Podong, Roongreang Poolsiri, Klaus Katzensteiner, Pattra Pengthamkeerati and Piyapong Thongdeenok
environmental components of shifting cultivation in upland Mindanao. Journal of Tropical Geography, 28, 40-56.
Khopai A. 2006. The Study of Plant Community in Khao Kaset Forest Area and Tree SpeciesDiversity in Kasetsart Si Racha Campus. Thai Journal of Forestry, 25, 1-18.
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The study was conducted in the years 2011–2012, in a forest nursery in Białe Błota (Bydgoszcz Forest District). The experiment was established in a 20 m wide belt of trees within a 110 years old stand growing on mixed fresh coniferous forest site. Litter bags containing hardwood and pine wood chips were placed on mineral soil of microplots and covered with a 5 cm layer of litter. The pattern of chips colonization differed between mites belonging to different orders. Predatory Mesostigmata colonized hardwood chips gradually but they were present in high numbers in pine chips from the beginning of the study. Abundance of Actinedida fluctuated within the two-year study cycle. Contrary to that, oribatid mites, which were a predominant mite type, colonized both types of chips gradually, while preferring the pine ones. At the end of the study, the structure of mite communities and mite abundance in pine chips were more similar to forest soil than in hardwood chips. The experiment demonstrated that pine chips provided most oribatid mites with more favorable living conditions than hardwood chips, as they were colonized at a quicker rate and by a greater number of species. The most abundant oribatid mite in both substrates was a eurytopic Tectocepheus velatus that showed no clear preferences towards either of the substrates. Majority of oribatid mites, e.g. Oppiella nova, Metabelba pulverulenta, Oribatula tibialis, Chamobates schuetzi, Galumna lanceata, preferred pine chips. The only species with clear preference for hardwood chips was Eniochthonius minutissimus. A comparison of usefulness of hardwood and pine wood chips in revitalization of degraded soils based on bioindication approach indicated higher suitability of pine chips that are also more available in Polish forests.
Annisa, Rini Hafzari, Tia Setiawati, Budi Irawan and Joko Kusmoro
, Tissue and Organ Culture, 68 (1), 1–19.
Reflinur, Lestari, P. 2015. Determination of gene locus in plant chromosomes with DNA marker (in Indonesian). Jurnal Litbang Pertanian , 34, 177–186.
Schoettle, A.W, Goodrich, B.A., Hipkins, V., Richards, C., Kray, J. 2012. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata , Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research , 42, 23–37.
Setiawati, T., Mutaqin, A.Z., Irawan, B., An’amillah, A., Iskandar, J. 2017. Speciesdiversity and utilization of bamboo
Jakub Gryz, Grzegorz Lesiński, Dagny Krauze-Gryz and Przemysław Stolarz
The aim of the study was to determine the species richness (S, Chao- 1 index) and diversity (Shannon-Wiener H’ index, diversity profiles) of small mammal assemblages in woodland reserves in an urban agglomeration and to compare the similarity of assemblages (with the use of Ward’s method) in terms of proportions of small mammals connected to the habitats of different level of naturalness. The work was conducted from 2004-2015 at 9 woodland reserves in Warsaw (Poland). On the basis of the analysis of pellets of tawny owls Strix aluco, 2792 individuals were identified (24 species). Reserves supported from 7 to 16 of the small mammal species, the highest overall number of species estimated (Chao-1) was 19. Species present in every reserve were Apodemus flavicollis, A. agrarius, Rattus norvegicus, Sorex araneus and Talpa europaea. Least frequent were Microtus agrestis and M. subterraneus. Seven species of bats were detected. Species diversity was lower in the biggest forest complexes, where forest rodents dominated small mammal assemblage. The heterogeneity of habitats within reserve and in the surroundings, in combination with limited human-interference, resulted in an increase in the species diversity. Overall, the reserves under study were an important refuge for small mammals within the Warsaw agglomeration. However, safeguarding of adjacent areas against excessive anthropogenic change is needed and ecological corridors that link different areas need to be retained.
Wojciech Grodzki, Sławomir Ambroży and Wojciech Gil
In the experiment eight populations of Picea abies were chosen at 100 m intervals between 500 m and 1200 m altitude a.s.l.. In each population wood core samples were collected from 14-19 trees (126 cores total), and measured using a Corim Maxi device. At four of the eight sites (every 200 m in elevation between 500 m and 1100 m a.s.l.), the diversity of ground vegetation was evaluated, and temperature was recorded at every 100 m of altitude.
The highest average radial increment of spruce occurred between the altitudes 800-1000 m a.s.l., which is probably the optimum for spruce. The larger increment indices observed at higher altitudes may signify a high growth potential of spruce. It may also suggest a recent upward shift of the optimum growth zone for this tree species.
In 15 phytosociological records, the presence of 148 plant species forming plant associations: Dentario glandulosae- Fagetum typicum (sub-mountainous and mountainous form) and Abieti-Piceetum, and community Abies alba-Rubus hirtus, was documented. No relationship was found between ground vegetation species diversity (expressed by Shannon-Wiener index) and levels of stand diversity.
The vegetation species diversity varied with the elevation above sea level: the highest plant diversity was found at 500 m a.s.l., and decreased with increasing altitude. The potential increase in air temperatures may result in changes to the altitudinal range of many plant species including trees, and consequently in an upward shift of the boundaries of plant zones; in this case the sub-mountainous and lower mountainous forest zone. In this region, the optimal zone for Norway spruce may be restricted to the highest elevations.
Andrzej Klimek, Stanisław Rolbiecki and Roman Rolbiecki
Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus) and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida) in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.
Tomasz Borecki, Bogdan Brzeziecki, Edward Stępień and Roman Wójcik
The demand for wide range and precise information on forests promotes continuous development of forest inventory methods, owing to the fact that compilation of reliable data is prerequisite not only for improving forest management schedules but also planning land use and natural environment management. In the reality of contemporary forestry, a requirement to improve forest inventory methods stems from obligation to acquire information on broadly understood issues of forestry as well as the protection of nature and environment.
The paper points out to the essential steps, as said by the authors, on the way to the improvement of now used forest inventory methods and calls attention to remote sensing technologies such as ortophotomaps and aerial lidar data.
The revisions proposed concern gathering information on: site conditions, species diversity, forest stock range as well as sample size and work scope on sampling areas. At the same time, in view of surveying the dynamics of forest change, there is recommended the use of permanent observation plots, especially in mountainous forests.
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Gilliam F.S. 2007. The ecological significance of the herbaceous layer in temperate forest ecosystems. BioScience , 57 (10), 845–858.
Giorgini D., Giordani P., Casazza G., Amici V., Mariotti M.G., Chiarucci A. 2015. Woody speciesdiversity as predictor of vascular plant speciesdiversity in forest ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management , 345, 50–55.
Hardtle W., von Oheimb G., Westphal C. 2005. Relationships between the vegetation and soil conditions in beech and beech-oak forests of northern Germany. Plant Ecology , 177
Addo Koranteng, Isaac Adu-Poku and Tomasz Zawiła-Niedźwiecki
Anthropocene. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment , 8 (1), 27–34.
Prestele, R. et al. 2017. Current challenges of implementing anthropogenic land-use and land-cover change in models contributing to climate change assessments. Earth System Dynamics , 8 (2), 369–386.
Stephens, S.S., Bosu, P.P., Wager, M.R. 2016. Effect of overstory tree speciesdiversity and composition on ground foraging ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in timber plantations in Ghana. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services and Management , 12 (1/2), 96–107. https