K. Slivinska, V. Kharchenko, Z. Wróblewski, J. Gawor and T. Kuzmina
prevalence of the separate strongylid species or their proportion in communities were not observed between females and males, or between the three age groups (Kruskal-Wallis test; p > 0.05).
Speciesdiversity in strongylid communities of the Polish primitive horses significantly differed between horse farms ( Table 2 ). The lowest number of species (15) was found on the farm “Syriusz”, where the horses are kept in stables, and the maximum numbers of strongylid species (30 and 31) were found on farms Seven Island and Roztocze in FR horses.
The types of management
Nematode communities in a Norway spruce forest in High Tatra National Park, Slovakia were monitored for the period of several years (2006 and 2013). Unfortunately, in May 2014 natural windstorm damaged the forest. This disastrous event, together with preliminary obtained results allowed us to compare the direct impact of windstorm damage of forest habitat on soil nematode assemblages. The forest destruction by windstorm had a significant effect on the total nematode abundance, the abundance of omnivores and herbivores, as well as the nematode species diversity. The most dominant species, representing 55 % of the total nematode fauna, in the plot studied were Acrobeloides nanus followed by Malenchus exiguus, Filenchus vulgaris, Plectus communis, Plectus parvus and Tylencholaimus mirabilis. The abundance of bacterivorous signifi cantly increased after the windstorm, meanwhile the abundance of omnivores, fungivores, and herbivores ectoparasites and epidermal/root hair feeders showed an opposite trend. Of the evaluative indicators, Shannon species diversity (H’spp), maturity index (MI), maturity index 2-5 (MI2-5), sigma maturity index (ΣMI), enrichment index (EI) and structure index (SI) decreased significantly after windstorm. The EI and SI indexes characterized soil ecosystems before windstorm (2006 - 2013) as maturing with low or moderate disturbance, but soil ecosystems shortly after the windstorm (2014) were degraded and nutrient depleted. This also corresponded with graphical display of metabolic footprints characteristics of soil food web. Overall, the nematode communities differed significantly before and after forest damage. These results suggest the role of nematode communities as indicators of environment condition quality or its disruption.
A new nematode species, Subulura mackoi n. sp., is described based on specimens from the colon and caecum of the Eurasian Scops Owl Otus scops (L.) (Aves: Strigiformes) from the Czech Republic, collected in 2011. Males are characterized by 10 pairs of caudal papillae, a single papilla on the upper lip of the cloaca, and small unequal spiculae; female distinguishing features are body length, distance of the vulva from the anterior extremity, tail length, and egg dimension.
Analysis of the zoogeographical distribution and host specialization (in the bird orders) of 68 valid species from the genus Subulura Molin, 1860 shows significantly high species diversity in the tropical zones. Only one species, S. brumpti, is a cosmopolitan parasite of Gallus gallus f. domestica and other domesticated gallinaceous birds. Zoogeographical-host interactions may be utilized to support the identification of morphospecies of the genus Subulura.
et al . (2008) from Syrt Coast, Libya. Also, Klimpel et al . (2008) in the North Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Mullus surmuletus occurs on broken and rough grounds in less than 100 m water depth. It is highly infected in the M. Sea hosting about 28 different species of parasites ( Bartoli & Bray, 1996 ; Ferrer et al ., 2005 ). Mediterranean Sea is characterized by an unusual high speciesdiversity for a temperate sea. It contains around 7 % of the total global marine fish species with a wide range of both tropical and temperate species. Nematodes considered as
During a survey of species diversity and ecology of selected West African vertebrates in the Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal, two Chamaeleo senegalensis Daudin, 1802 (Chamaeleonidae) were collected and examined for parasites. A new species, Oochoristica koubeki n. sp., anoplocephalidian cestode of the genus Oochoristica Lühe, 1898 is described from the intestine of this host. The new species is related to O. theileri Fuhrmann, 1924; O. theileri Fuhrmann, 1924 f. major Baer, 1933; O. celebensis Yamaguti, 1954 and O. rostellata Zschokke, 1905 var. agamicolla Dollfus, 1957. All the forenamed species share characteristic strobila with proglottids wider than long. Oochoristica koubeki n. sp. differs from these species in different proportions of scolex, cirrus sac, ovarium and vitellarium, further differences are in number of testes and presence of reinforced genital atrium. Only O. theileri shares two last mentioned features, however it differs in shape of testes (rounded) and in distribution of testes (two clusters). The new species differs from all other species in extremely high number of egg’s capsules, different host species and zoogeographic distribution. Emendation of genus diagnosis sensu Beveridge (1994) is provided.
Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is a pest that needs to be controlled with chemicals in the maize monoculture. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of insecticides on nematode communities in a maize field. Four soil treatments were used in this experiment: variant 1 — a granular application with tefluthrin (199.5 g a.i./ha); variant 2 — a granular application with clothianidin (110 g a.i./ha); variant 3 — a seed treatment with clothianidin (1.25 μg a.i/seed); and control — a maize field without insecticides.
During the investigated period, a total of 19 117 soil nematode individuals were captured and 9 orders, 33 genera and 37 species were identified. Acrobeloides nanus, Cephalobus persegnis, Eucephalobus striatus and Basiria gracilis were the dominant species, accounting for 48 % of the total number of individuals. The mean abundance and species diversity index were significantly lower for variant 2. Bacterial feeders were the dominant trophic group for all 4 variants. The numbers of nematodes in particular trophic groups (i.e., bacterial feeders, fungal feeders and omnivores) were significantly different between variant 2 and the control. The Σ Maturity index, Maturity index and Plant parasitic index did not show significant differences among the variants. The higher values of the Enrichment and Structure indices were observed in the first month of the investigation in all 4 variants. A cluster analysis showed that nematode species population densities were strongly affected by the date of soil sample collection and by the variants used in the experiment.
In 1998 Przewalski’s horses have been introduced in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ), N Ukraine. They live in the zone under natural conditions. No anthelminthic treatment to these introduced horses has been applied to date. In this same area, 19 domestic horses were also stabled by some peasants. Eighteen years after the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, and five years after this introduction, the diagnostic dehelminthisation method has been applied both to the Przewalski’s horses (n = 21) and the domestic horses (n = 6). In addition, in one Przewalski’s and one domestic horse helmith fauna was surveyed using the post-mortem method. A total of 29 and 19 helminth species has been recorded in the Przewalski’s and domestic horses respectively. Only six helminth species were common for the two horse species compared. Species from the family Strongylidae constituted the dominant helminth group. Four cyathostomine species (Cyathostomum catinatum; Cylicostephanus minutus, C. longibursatus, Cylicocyclus nassatus) formed the majority of helminth parasites both in the Przewalski’s and domestic horses. Our findings suggest that the CEZ has no effect on the species diversity of helminth fauna parasiting Przewalski’s horses, neither it has an effect on the prevalence and intensity of parasite infestation. Behavioural and ecological studies also support the lack of such effect.
Species diversity and composition of the parasite communities of barbel (Barbus barbus) at the infracommunity and component community levels were studied in the Lower Danube River, Bulgaria. During the two-year investigations, five parasite species have been found in 92 host fish: Bathybothrium rectangulum (Cestoda), Acanthocephalus anguillae and Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala) and larval stages of Contracaecum sp. and Raphidascaris acus (Nematoda). Bathybothrium rectangulum and R. acus found in barbel represented new host records in Bulgaria. Parasite communities of barbel were species-poor and highly unbalanced. Pomphorhynchus laevis represented the dominant (core) species (prevalence 98.9 %), the second most frequent component parasite was Contracaecum sp. (P = 14.1 %) and remaining three species occurred only accidentally in barbels. Differences in species richness, prevalence, intensity of infection and ecological indices between individual seasons (spring, summer, autumn) were statistically significant, but considerably affected by unequal species structure of communities with highly prevailing P. laevis. Low parasite species diversity of barbel and low values of most ecological indices, when compared with previous studies in this area (or other Bulgarian parts of the River Danube) might indicate that environmental conditions are impaired and thus, not favourable for the development of barbel parasites (primarily to their intermediate host survival) in the Lower Danube River of Bulgaria.
species of Acanthatrium Faust, 1919 (Trematoda: Lecithodendriidae). Unpubl. M.S. Thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus 95 pp.
WILLIAMS, R.R. (1962): Trematodes from Cave Bat, Myotis sodalis Miller and Allen. Ohio J. Sci., 62(5): 273
ZIKMUNDOVÁ, J., GEORGIEVA, S., FALTÝNOVÁ, A., SOLDÁNOVÁ, M., KOSTADINOVA, A. (2014): Speciesdiversity of Plagiorchis Lühe, 1899 (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) in lymnaeid snails from freshwater ecosystems in central Europe revealed by molecules and morphology. Syst. Parasitol., 88: 37 - 54. DOI: 10.1007/s11230-014-9481-8
., Pilkington, J. G., Pemberton, J. M. (2004): Non-invasive assessment of parasitic nematode speciesdiversity in wild Soay sheep using molecular markers. Int. J. Parasitol., 34: 625–631 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2003.11.022