Mehrdad Ghodskhah Daryayi, Mohammad Naghi Adel, Mohaddese Seddighi Pashaki and Javad Sadegh Kuhestani
Adel M.N., Pourbabaei H., Omidi A., C Dey D. 2012b. Forest structure and woody plant species composition after a wildfire in beech forests in the north of Iran. Journal of Forestry Research, DOI 10.1007/ s11676-012-0316-7.
Adel M.N., Pourbabaei H., Omidi A., Pothier D. 2012a. Long-term effect of fire on herbaceous speciesdiversity in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forests in northern Iran. Forestry Studies in China, 14 (4), 260-267.
Allison L.E. 1965. Organic carbon, In Black, C
Chattanong Podong, Roongreang Poolsiri, Klaus Katzensteiner, Pattra Pengthamkeerati and Piyapong Thongdeenok
environmental components of shifting cultivation in upland Mindanao. Journal of Tropical Geography, 28, 40-56.
Khopai A. 2006. The Study of Plant Community in Khao Kaset Forest Area and Tree SpeciesDiversity in Kasetsart Si Racha Campus. Thai Journal of Forestry, 25, 1-18.
Kochummen K.M., Ng F.S.P. 1977. Natural plant succession after farming in Kepong. Malayan Forester, 40, 61-78.
Kyuma K., Pairintra C. 1983. Shifting cultivation: An Experiment at Nam Phrom, Northeast Thailand, and Its Implications for Upland Farming in the
The study was conducted in the years 2011–2012, in a forest nursery in Białe Błota (Bydgoszcz Forest District). The experiment was established in a 20 m wide belt of trees within a 110 years old stand growing on mixed fresh coniferous forest site. Litter bags containing hardwood and pine wood chips were placed on mineral soil of microplots and covered with a 5 cm layer of litter. The pattern of chips colonization differed between mites belonging to different orders. Predatory Mesostigmata colonized hardwood chips gradually but they were present in high numbers in pine chips from the beginning of the study. Abundance of Actinedida fluctuated within the two-year study cycle. Contrary to that, oribatid mites, which were a predominant mite type, colonized both types of chips gradually, while preferring the pine ones. At the end of the study, the structure of mite communities and mite abundance in pine chips were more similar to forest soil than in hardwood chips. The experiment demonstrated that pine chips provided most oribatid mites with more favorable living conditions than hardwood chips, as they were colonized at a quicker rate and by a greater number of species. The most abundant oribatid mite in both substrates was a eurytopic Tectocepheus velatus that showed no clear preferences towards either of the substrates. Majority of oribatid mites, e.g. Oppiella nova, Metabelba pulverulenta, Oribatula tibialis, Chamobates schuetzi, Galumna lanceata, preferred pine chips. The only species with clear preference for hardwood chips was Eniochthonius minutissimus. A comparison of usefulness of hardwood and pine wood chips in revitalization of degraded soils based on bioindication approach indicated higher suitability of pine chips that are also more available in Polish forests.
Annisa, Rini Hafzari, Tia Setiawati, Budi Irawan and Joko Kusmoro
, Tissue and Organ Culture, 68 (1), 1–19.
Reflinur, Lestari, P. 2015. Determination of gene locus in plant chromosomes with DNA marker (in Indonesian). Jurnal Litbang Pertanian , 34, 177–186.
Schoettle, A.W, Goodrich, B.A., Hipkins, V., Richards, C., Kray, J. 2012. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata , Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research , 42, 23–37.
Setiawati, T., Mutaqin, A.Z., Irawan, B., An’amillah, A., Iskandar, J. 2017. Speciesdiversity and utilization of bamboo
János Varga, Sándor Kocsubé, Gyöngyi Szigeti, Nikolett Baranyi, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Daniela Jakšić Despot, Donát Magyar, Martin Meijer, Robert A. Samson and Maja Šegvić Klarić
Black Aspergilli (Aspergillus section Nigri) are widely distributed in various habitats. They act as food spoilage organisms, human pathogens, and mycotoxin producers and are frequently encountered in indoor environments. Black Aspergilli, specifically A. niger, A. welwitschiae, and A. carbonarius, produce different ochratoxins and fumonisins. Ochratoxins are known to induce renal disorders following inhalation, which necessitates the determination of potential mycotoxin-producing species in our environment. This paper aimed to compare the diversity and species distribution of black Aspergilli in the indoor environments of six different countries using morphological and molecular methods. A total of 178 black Aspergillus isolates were identified from six countries. In contrast with results from previous studies, A. niger was not the only black Aspergillus detected in indoor air. Species distribution differed among countries, although the distribution in European countries (Croatia, Hungary, the Netherlands, and Turkey) with a temperate climate was considerably similar. The highest species diversity was observed in indoor samples from Thailand, while the lowest was found in Algeria. Potentially ochratoxin- and fumonisin-producing fungi were detected in the indoor air of all six countries. Further studies need to clarify the effect of these fungi and their mycotoxins on human and animal health.
Jakub Gryz, Grzegorz Lesiński, Dagny Krauze-Gryz and Przemysław Stolarz
The aim of the study was to determine the species richness (S, Chao- 1 index) and diversity (Shannon-Wiener H’ index, diversity profiles) of small mammal assemblages in woodland reserves in an urban agglomeration and to compare the similarity of assemblages (with the use of Ward’s method) in terms of proportions of small mammals connected to the habitats of different level of naturalness. The work was conducted from 2004-2015 at 9 woodland reserves in Warsaw (Poland). On the basis of the analysis of pellets of tawny owls Strix aluco, 2792 individuals were identified (24 species). Reserves supported from 7 to 16 of the small mammal species, the highest overall number of species estimated (Chao-1) was 19. Species present in every reserve were Apodemus flavicollis, A. agrarius, Rattus norvegicus, Sorex araneus and Talpa europaea. Least frequent were Microtus agrestis and M. subterraneus. Seven species of bats were detected. Species diversity was lower in the biggest forest complexes, where forest rodents dominated small mammal assemblage. The heterogeneity of habitats within reserve and in the surroundings, in combination with limited human-interference, resulted in an increase in the species diversity. Overall, the reserves under study were an important refuge for small mammals within the Warsaw agglomeration. However, safeguarding of adjacent areas against excessive anthropogenic change is needed and ecological corridors that link different areas need to be retained.
Wojciech Grodzki, Sławomir Ambroży and Wojciech Gil
In the experiment eight populations of Picea abies were chosen at 100 m intervals between 500 m and 1200 m altitude a.s.l.. In each population wood core samples were collected from 14-19 trees (126 cores total), and measured using a Corim Maxi device. At four of the eight sites (every 200 m in elevation between 500 m and 1100 m a.s.l.), the diversity of ground vegetation was evaluated, and temperature was recorded at every 100 m of altitude.
The highest average radial increment of spruce occurred between the altitudes 800-1000 m a.s.l., which is probably the optimum for spruce. The larger increment indices observed at higher altitudes may signify a high growth potential of spruce. It may also suggest a recent upward shift of the optimum growth zone for this tree species.
In 15 phytosociological records, the presence of 148 plant species forming plant associations: Dentario glandulosae- Fagetum typicum (sub-mountainous and mountainous form) and Abieti-Piceetum, and community Abies alba-Rubus hirtus, was documented. No relationship was found between ground vegetation species diversity (expressed by Shannon-Wiener index) and levels of stand diversity.
The vegetation species diversity varied with the elevation above sea level: the highest plant diversity was found at 500 m a.s.l., and decreased with increasing altitude. The potential increase in air temperatures may result in changes to the altitudinal range of many plant species including trees, and consequently in an upward shift of the boundaries of plant zones; in this case the sub-mountainous and lower mountainous forest zone. In this region, the optimal zone for Norway spruce may be restricted to the highest elevations.
K. Slivinska, V. Kharchenko, Z. Wróblewski, J. Gawor and T. Kuzmina
prevalence of the separate strongylid species or their proportion in communities were not observed between females and males, or between the three age groups (Kruskal-Wallis test; p > 0.05).
Speciesdiversity in strongylid communities of the Polish primitive horses significantly differed between horse farms ( Table 2 ). The lowest number of species (15) was found on the farm “Syriusz”, where the horses are kept in stables, and the maximum numbers of strongylid species (30 and 31) were found on farms Seven Island and Roztocze in FR horses.
The types of management
Andrzej Klimek, Stanisław Rolbiecki and Roman Rolbiecki
Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus) and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida) in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.