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Forest edges represent specific elements forming the character of landscape. They are very important factors in ecological stability. To know and to understand them as a part of dynamic and hierarchic structure in vertical and horizontal shaping of the landscape contributes to understanding of the processes between forest and non-forested landscape in connection to influence of ecological factors towards broad knowledge of the country in the shape of its utilization and monitoring of its dynamic changes. The aim of the paper is to analyze in a geographic sense the types of anthropic forest edges in the area of Starohorské vrchy Mts. (on the example of Donovaly village) and their partial geographic synthesis in the frame of chosen attributes and forest edge functions. Basic question is whether human activity influences the dynamics of environmental variables, its structure, taxonomic diversity and other attributes of forest edges.
The sediment sequence from Budzewo (Skaliska Basin, north-eastern Poland) contains cladoceran records beginning from the early Holocene. A total of 33 Cladocera taxa were identified in the entire sequence. The cladoceran fauna of the initial stage of palaeolake history in the Preboreal shows high similarity to early Holocene Estonian and Scandinavian records. Benthic Alonella nana was dominant at that time. After that, probably during the Boreal and early Atlantic periods, Cladocera species diversity increased and planktonic forms (bosminas) became dominant, pointing to a rise of water level. The species composition indicates that the lake was meso- to eutrophic. The lake began to shallow during the middle Atlantic. The process was completed in the Subboreal and the lake transformed into a bog. The fall in water level and finally the terrestrialization of the lake is correlated with similar processes recorded in other sediment sequences in northern Poland, suggesting that this event may have been driven by regional factors such as lower precipitation.
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Prausová Romana, Štefánek Michal, Rauch Ota and Kovář Pavel
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