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Antropogenically Created Forest Edge in the Starohorské Vrchy Mts. on the Example of Donovaly Village
Forest edges represent specific elements forming the character of landscape. They are very important factors in ecological stability. To know and to understand them as a part of dynamic and hierarchic structure in vertical and horizontal shaping of the landscape contributes to understanding of the processes between forest and non-forested landscape in connection to influence of ecological factors towards broad knowledge of the country in the shape of its utilization and monitoring of its dynamic changes. The aim of the paper is to analyze in a geographic sense the types of anthropic forest edges in the area of Starohorské vrchy Mts. (on the example of Donovaly village) and their partial geographic synthesis in the frame of chosen attributes and forest edge functions. Basic question is whether human activity influences the dynamics of environmental variables, its structure, taxonomic diversity and other attributes of forest edges.
Environmental repercussion of subsidence reservoirs reclamation
Subsidence basins filled with water are being formed above exploitation fields also in woodland areas leading to changes in water relations simultaneously affecting creation of environmental islands characterized by higher biodiversity in comparison with adjacent areas.
Unfortunately, these types of water reservoirs from the legal point of view are considered mining damage and should thus be reclaimed. Reclamation usually consists in gravitational drainage and filling up with barren rock, appropriate relief forming and afforestation. So performed reclamation practices lead to negative effects both within the subsidence and in adjacent areas. The objective of this work was to determine the impact of reclamation based on filling subsidence with barren rock on changes in hydrology and biodiversity of nearby forest communities. For the purpose of the study two objects were selected: the existing water body and former water reservoir - at present filled with barren rock. Both are situated in Ślαskie voivodship (the territory of Mysłowice and Katowice). Within the two objects, hydrological studies at two sampling points in each of the objects and vegetation sampling were performed. The DCA of 12 transects (6 in each object) and statistical analyses of vegetation showed differences between two objects in species composition, especially due to higher abundance and coverage of invasive and expansive species in reclaimed areas. Chemical analyses showed high contamination of surface waters (by e.g. SO42-, Cl-, Na+) caused by waste deposition in barren rock and the negative effect of coal mine waters supplying the area of reclaimed reservoir.
Prausová Romana, Štefánek Michal, Rauch Ota and Kovář Pavel
effects in restoration of surface soil crust microecosystem on abandoned tailings containment. – Journal of Landscape Ecology , 5(3): 57–69.
Urbanová, J., Kovář, P. et Dostál, P. (2017). What processes shape early-successional vegetation in fly ash and mine tailings? – Plant Ecology , 218(2): 127–137.
Vaňková, J. et Kovář, P. (2004). Plant speciesdiversity in the biotopes of un-reclaimed industrial deposits as artificial islands in landscape. – In: Kovář P. (ed.): Natural Recovery of Human-Made Deposits in Landscape (Biotic Interactions and Ore
; Burgess, Sharpe 1981 ; Forman, Godron 1981 , 1986 ; Krümmel et al. 1987 ; Turner 1987 , 1990 ). The study of landscape diversity therefore focuses on identifying the attributes of the patches which make up its structure, and the results of these studies form the basis for creating hypotheses with the strong influence of the composition and configuration on the processes taking place in the landscape ( Cushman, McGarigal 2004 ; Levin 1992 ). Changes in the area, shape and ecosystems connectivity can influence the changes in speciesdiversity, population dynamics
The sediment sequence from Budzewo (Skaliska Basin, north-eastern Poland) contains cladoceran records beginning from the early Holocene. A total of 33 Cladocera taxa were identified in the entire sequence. The cladoceran fauna of the initial stage of palaeolake history in the Preboreal shows high similarity to early Holocene Estonian and Scandinavian records. Benthic Alonella nana was dominant at that time. After that, probably during the Boreal and early Atlantic periods, Cladocera species diversity increased and planktonic forms (bosminas) became dominant, pointing to a rise of water level. The species composition indicates that the lake was meso- to eutrophic. The lake began to shallow during the middle Atlantic. The process was completed in the Subboreal and the lake transformed into a bog. The fall in water level and finally the terrestrialization of the lake is correlated with similar processes recorded in other sediment sequences in northern Poland, suggesting that this event may have been driven by regional factors such as lower precipitation.