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The Effect of Landscape on the Diversity in Urban Green Areas

. Species diversity of carabids in different types of Bydgoszcz urban green belts and suburban environments. Folia Biol. 2005;53:179-186. DOI: 10.3409/173491605775789498. [20] Żelazna E, Błażejewicz-Zawadzińska M. Zróżnicowanie gatunkowe biegaczowatych (Coleoptera: Carabidae) terenów parkowych Bydgoszczy oraz wybranych kompleksów leśnych i zadrzewień śródpolnych obszaru kujawsko-pomorskiego (Carabidae species variation (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in the parks of Bydgoszcz and selected forest complexes and midfield plantings of the Kujawy and Pomorze region). Wiad

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Woody Species Diversity, Regeneration and Socioeconomic Benefits Under Natural Forest and Adjacent Coffee Agroforests at Belete Forest, Southwest Ethiopia

. Int. , 16(01), 1−23. DOI: 10.1017/S0959270906000074. Magurran, A.E. (2004). Measuring biological diversity . Oxford: Blackwell Sciences. Moguel, P. & Toledo V.M. (1999). Biodiversity conservation in traditional coffee systems of Mexico. Conserv. Biol ., 13(1), 11−21. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.97153.x. Molla, A. & Asfaw Z. (2014). Woody species diversity under natural forest patches and adjacent enset-coffee based Agroforestry in the Midland of Sidama Zone, Ethiopia. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation , 6(10), 708

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Diversity of Earthworms in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

., 1992, Population dynamics of the earthworm Aporrectodea trapezoides (Annelida: Lumbricidae) in a Western Australian pasture soil. Biology & Fertility of Soils, 12 (4): 285–289. Mohan, L., Pellet, C., Cloitre, M., Bonnecaze, R., 2013, Local mobility and microstructure in periodically sheared soft particle glasses and their connection to macroscopic rheology. J. Rheol., 57: 1023–1046. Ogunlaja, A., Morenikeji, O. A., 2013, Species diversity and population size of earthworms after oil spillage in a pipeline vandalized area in Lagos State, Nigeria. African

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Structure of the Breeding Bird Assemblage of A Natural Beech-Spruce Forest in the Šútovská Dolina National Nature Reserve, the Malá Fatra Mts

, Low Tatras National Park) (in Slovak). Tichodroma, 16, 23-35. Fiala, J. (1997). Effect of beech forest structure in Slanske vrchy Mts. on composition of bird assemblage (in Slovak). MSc. thesis, Faculty of Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia. Heck, K.L., Jr., Van Belle, G. & Simberloff D. (1975). Explicit calculation of the rarefaction diversity measurement and the determination of sufficient sample size. Ecology, 56, 1459-1461. DOI: 10.2307/1934716. Hurlbert, S.H. (1971). The non-concept of species

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Response of Vegetation on Gravel Bars to Management Measures and Floods: Case Study From the Czech Republic

.R. & Mallik A.U. (2010). Disturbance effects on species diversity and functional diversity in riparian and upland plant communities. Ecology, 91, 28-35. DOI: 10.1890/08-0887.1. Blažková, D. (2003). Riverine vegetation of the Berounka River two months after flood in August 2002 (in Czech). Bohemia Centralis, 26, 35-44. Bliss, L.C. & Cantlon J.E. (1957). Succession on River Alluvium in Northern Alaska. Am. Midl. Nat., 58,452-469. Buček, A. & Štykar J. (2001). Geobiocoenological mapping in the Odra river watershed riparian zone of streams (in Czech). In Niva z

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Linking floral biodiversity with nitrogen and carbon translocations in semi-natural grasslands in Lithuani

fertilization (in Lithuania). Zemdirbyste- Agriculture, 94, 84−95. Dickson, T.L. & Gross K.L. (2013). Plant community responses to long-term fertilization: changes in functional group abundance drive changes in species richness. Oecologia, 173(4), 1513−1520. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-013-2722-8. Eilts, J.A., Mittelbach, G.G., Reynolds, H.L. & Gross K.L. (2011). Resource heterogeneity, soil fertility, and species diversity: effects of clonal species on plant communities. Am. Nat., 177(5), 574−588. DOI: 10.1086/659633. Elgersma, A

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Bird Communities and Vegetation Composition in the Urban Forest Ecosystem: Correlations and Comparisons of Diversity Indices

structure of bird communities at forests park zone of Kharkov (Ukraine). Belgorod State University Scientific Bulletin, Natural Sciences, 30(3), 74−81. Barbarich, A. (1977). Geobotanical subdivision of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Kyiv: Science. Batary, P., Fronczek, S., Normann, C., Scherber, C. & Tscharntke T. (2014). How do edge effect and tree species diversity change bird diversity and avian nest survival in Germany’s largest deciduous forest? For. Ecol. Manag., 319, 44−50. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2014.02.004. Bergner, A

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Bird communities and vegetation composition in natural and semi-natural forests of megalopolis: correlations and comparisons of diversity indices (Kyiv city, Ukraine)

functional organization of forest ecosystems in the evolutionary aspect. Factors in Experimental Evolution Organisms, 18, 186−190. MacArthur, R. & MacArthur J. (1961). On bird species diversity. Ecology, 42, 594−598. DOI: 10.2307/1932254. Magurran, E. (1998). Ecological diversity and its measurement . New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Martin, K. & Eadie J.M. (1999). Nest webs: a community-wide approach to the management and conservation of cavity-nesting forest birds. For. Ecol. Manag ., 115, 243–257. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1127(98)00403-4. Martin

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Changes in Snowbed Vegetation in the Western Carpathians Under Changing Climatic Conditions and Land Use in the Last Decades

., Nogués-Bravo, D., Normand, S., Puşcaş, M., Sebastiá, M.-T., Stanisci, A., Theurillat, J.-P., Trivedi, M.R., Vittoz, P. & Guisan A. (2011). 21st century climate change threatens mountain flora unequally across Europe. Glob. Change Biol. , 17, 2330–2341. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02393.x. Erschbamer, B., Unterluggauer, P., Winkler, E.& Mallaun M. (2011). Changes in plant species diversity revealed by long-term monitoring on mountain summits in the Dolomites (northern Italy). Preslia , 83, 387–401. Fabiszewski, J. & Wojtuń B. (2001). Contemporary

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Communities of epigeic beetles in tree line from montane spruce forest to secondary meadow in the different stage of the forest decline in the area of Modrava (Bohemian forest, Czech Republic)


Communities of epigeic beetles were studied using pitfall trapping on 10 plots with the different stage of decline and clear-cut plots without coarse woody debris. Species richness (number of all species, S), total species diversity as the Shannon-Wiener’s index (H) and equitability (e) were calculated in the DBreleve. The Ward’s method of hierarchical agglomerative classification with Euclidean distance was used for the differentiation of the communities on the plots. Species data for this analyse were represented by logarithm-transformed activities [log(x+1)]. The single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical testing of differences in structural parameters (e.g. species richness and diversity) amongst distinguished groups of the plots. The species diversity and activity differs on glades without trees and coarse woody debris. The highest number of species was found in clear-cut areas. The lowest number of species was found on the plots with the living forest particularly invaded by bark beetle. This fact is caused by the fact that the clear-cut plots are invaded by ubiquitous and anthropotolerant species with good migration possibilities. These species are adapted to habitats without trees and are able to leave even in the habitats with very sparse or without vegetation. Species living in the forest even under the bark beetle attack are often stenotopic and adapted to the forest microclimate (higher humidity and low average temperature). These species are very sensitive to great difference in the daily changes of microclimate. The study of beetle communities support the hypothesis that the keeping of dead tree stands on plots after bark beetle outbreak is better for biodiversity conservation than the cutting down of trees and the abolishment of stems.

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