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Preferences in Meat Consumption of People throughout the Ages Inhabiting the Present—Day Territory of Poland According to Archeaezoological Evidence
This paper describes meat consumption preferences of people from antiquity inhabiting the territory of present day Poland based on archaeological evidence from the skeletal remains of domestic and wild animals. Much information is provided about meat stocks and the scale of meat consumption by various social groups from these ancient times. Skeleton remains of cattle from the Neolithic period, (estimated in Poland to be around 4600-2100 B.C.), constitute on average from 44.0 to 73.0% of all animal remains found whilst the numbers for swine remains were from 36.9 to 19.0%. Looking at the 8 regions of contemporary Poland then in pre-Roman and Roman periods cattle bone remains ranged from 37.5% in East Pomerania to 80.9% in Central Poland. Those from swine ranged from 42.3 and 11.7%, respectively. In the Middle Ages, (defined as 7-13th century A.D.), cattle bone remains constituted from 30 to 50% and those of swine from 28.0 to 52%. In all of the analysed periods goat/sheep remains amounted to 15%. The skeletal remains of horses during the Roman and pre-Roman periods reached different values in different regions, i.e. from 2.7 in Greater Poland to 11.3% in Silesia however in the Middle Ages they were all below 5%. Fish remains consisting of mainly herring, pike and various other species have been continuously found to be present in the diet of people from Neolithic to the Middle ages.
Nowadays in Poland the annual consumption of pork amounts to 42 kg per capita constituting 57.8% of the total meat consumption (72.7 kg), against only about 5 kg of beef.
Marcin Pietrzykowski, Bartłomiej Woś, Marek Pająk and Justyna Likus-Cieślik
The stability of introduced stands depends not only on aboveground but also on the belowground biomass. Results from reclaimed sites often indicate good growth of the aboveground part of stands, but data on the development of root systems are still lacking. Our aim was to assess the vitality of trees, their biomass and the morphology of the root systems of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) introduced on reclaimed landfill waste after zinc and lead flotation in Bukowno (southern Poland). The landfill site was reclaimed 20 years ago and reclamation treatments involved isolation and covering with mineral substrate layers (110–150 cm thickness) which formed a technogenic soil profile. Four research plots (10 m × 10 m) were set up in pure pine stands where soil profiles consisted entirely of flotation waste. Trees on the plots were assayed according to the Kraft and IUFRO classification system. In total, 15 trees of average growth parameters and bio-sociological position (I and II Kraft class) were selected for biomass and root system analyses and the root systems were excavated, washed, measured, weighed and photographed.
Our results support pine as a useful species in reforestation of post-mining areas. However, although pine trees were characterised by good vitality, their root systems were shallow and their depth reduced by up to 60 cm due to strong skeletal loamy substrate. Individual root biomass ranged from 1.2 to 9.1 kg and was comparable to pine root biomass on other reclaimed mining sites. This indicates that during restoration, the thickness of the substrate covering the flotation waste should be increased or the amount of skeletal substrate in the top layers of technosol reduced.
Oak forest vegetation in the northern part of the Štiavnické vrchy Mts (Central Slovakia)
The phytosociological research of the oak forest vegetation was carried out in the northern part of the Štiavnické vrchy Mts (Central Slovakia) using the standard Zürich-Montpellier approach. The data set consisting of 41 phytosociological relevés was obtained by the authors in two vegetation seasons in 2008 and 2009. The numerical classification and the ordination methods were applied to determine the main vegetation types and to explain the structure of the vegetation-environmental data matrix, respectively. Four associations within two classes were distinguished: Luzulo albidae-Quercetum petraeae Hilitzer 1932, typical for shallow, mineral-poor and acidic soils, Melico uniflorae-Quercetum petraeae Gergely 1962 occuring on mesic stands with skeletal and deeper soils, Poo nemoralis-Quercetum dalechampii Šomšák et Háberová 1979 developing on moderately canopyopened stands in the submontane belt, Sorbo torminalis-Quercetum Svoboda ex Blažková 1962 growing on moderately acidic substrates in drier regions. The major environmental gradients responsible for variation in forest species composition was associated with soil nutrient and soil reaction following the Ellenberg indicator values as well as the measured environmental variables (C/N-ratio and soil acidity). Special attention was given to the discussion on species composition and site ecology.
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Fatemeh Ziaadini, Mohsen Aminae, M.M. Mahsa Rastegar, Sadegh Abbasian and Amir Hossein Memari
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