Monte Carlo and TL dosimetry applied to the characterization of 125I brachytherapy with a different design with other 125I seeds. In a water phantom, lattice configuration simulated with 125I seed in the center and 10 nm gold and gadolinium nan-particle filed voxels. This simulation conducted to the characterization of the nano-particles DEF in low energy and prostate tissue. To study of the prostate brachytherapy, a humanoid computational phantom developed by CT slices applied. KTMAN-2 computational phantom contains 29 organs and 19 skeletal regions and was produced from cross-sectional x-ray computed tomography (CT slices) images. The simulated seed was 125I seed having an average energy of 28.4 keV for photons, a half-life of 59.4 days. DEF factor in the seed radiation energy (28.4 keV) DEF factor was found to be two times higher for the gold nano-particles. It was revealed than gold-nano-particles posing Z about 1.24 times higher than gadolinium led to around 200% DEF increasing in the same conditions and the nano-particles size. It was concluded that in low energy sources brachytherapy, photoelectric is dominant in the presence of relative high element nanoparticles. This leads to a high dose increasing in some micro-meters and causes a dramatic dose gradient in the vicinity of a nano-particle. This dose gradient effectively kills the tumor cells in continuous low energy irradiation in the presence of a high Z material nano-scaled particle. Application of gold nano-particles in low energy brachytherapy is recommended.
Ireneusz Kowalski, Tadeusz Palko, Roman Pasniczek and Jozef Szarek
of electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve on background electromyography and static stretch reflex activity of the trunk muscles in rats: possible implications of neuronal mechanisms in the development of sciatic scoliosis. Spine. 2001; 26(6): 602-609.
Wright J, Herbert MA, Velasquez R, Bobechko WP. Morphologic and histochemical characteristics of skeletal muscle after long-duration intramuscular electrical stimulation. Spine. 1992; 17(7): 767-770.
Durmala J, Dobosiewicz K, Kotwicki T, Jedrzejek H. Effect of
T. Naveen, Sanjay Supe, K. Ganesh and Jacob Samuel
Bone pain trial working party. 8 Gy single fraction radiotherapy for the treatment of metastatic skeletal pain: randomized comparison with a multifraction schedule over 12 months of patient follow up. Radiother Oncol. 1999; 52: 111-121.
Chow E, Danjoux C. Palliation of bone metastases: a survey of patterns of practice among Canadian radiation oncologists. Radiother Oncol. 2000; 56: 305-314.
Gaze MN, Kelly CG, et al. Pain relief and quality of life following radiotherapy
Mador MJ et al. Diaphragmatic fatigue and high-intensity exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 161(1): 118-23.
Mador MJ, Khan S, Kufel TJ. Bilateral anterolateral magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerves can detect diaphragmatic fatigue. Chest 2002; 121(2): 452-8.
Man WD, Moxham J, Polkey MI. Magnetic stimulation for the measurement of respiratory and skeletal muscle function. Eur Respir J 2004; 24 (5): 846-60.
McKenzie DK et al