Antonio Paoli, Pasqualina Cancellara, Pierluigi Pompei and Tatiana Moro
Interactions between nutrition and skeletal muscle hypertrophy have been widely investigated. Several studies have analysed the effects of different macronutrients ( Escobar et al., 2016 ; Phillips, 2017 ; Witard et al., 2016 ) and the energy intake amount ( Hector et al., 2018 ) on muscle mass variations. Indeed, the size of skeletal muscle is the result of the balance between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). The algebraic sum of MPS and MPB results in the net protein balance (NPB). Only with a positive NPB it
Mateusz Radojewski, Tomasz Podgórski, Barbara Pospieszna, Jakub Kryściak, Ewa Śliwicka and Joanna Karolkiewicz
competitive phase on physiological and metabolic changes as well as selected markers of skeletal muscle damage in male volleyball players. Our hypothesis was that: 1) intensive training loads during the main competitive phase would cause skeletal muscle damage in male volleyball players; and that 2) the physical capacity of players would increase after the competitive phase of the annual training cycle.
The study group consisted of 24 male volleyball players (mean age: 22 years and 5 months (± 3.06); mean training experience: 7 years and 4 months (± 4
Agnieszka Maciejewska-Skrendo, Paweł Cięszczyk, Jakub Chycki, Marek Sawczuk and Wojciech Smółka
limited contribution to an elite athletic phenotype. Therefore, when looking into the group of genetic markers crucial for power athletes, the polymorphic variants encoding diversified products involved in wide variety of cellular processes and pathways should by analyzed. For the purpose of the present review, we have assigned all genetic markers described with reference to power athletes status to seven main groups: 1) markers associated with skeletal muscle structure and function, 2) markers involved in the inflammatory and repair reactions in skeletal muscle during
Piotr Kaczka, Małgorzata Magdalena Michalczyk, Rafał Jastrząb, Mateusz Gawelczyk and Katarzyna Kubicka
fundamental function of mTOR kinase is to regulate the processes of cell transcription, translation, proliferation and growth i.e. protein synthesis ( Asadi et al., 2017 ; Hay and Sonenberg, 2004 ). It seems that mTOR kinase plays a major role in the adaptation of muscle fiber synthesis as a result of intense physical effort ( Hornberger, 2011 ), as well as hormonal and nutritional stimulation. It is known that HMB stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscles ( Nissen and Abumrad, 1997 ; Smith et al., 2005 ). Relevant results were presented by Pimentel et al. (2011
of muscle pain/soreness in athletes. These findings may be used by strength and conditioning professionals as clues for injury prevention and training load programming.
Aagaard P, Simonsen EB, Andersen JL, Magnusson P, Dyhre-Poulsen P. Increased rate of force development and neural drive of human skeletal muscle following resistance training. J Appl Physiol 2002; 93(4): 1318-1326 10.1152/japplphysiol.00283.2002 12235031 Aagaard P Simonsen EB Andersen JL Magnusson P Dyhre-Poulsen P Increased rate of force development and
6. Dal Corso S,Napolis L, Malaguti C. et al. Skeletal muscle structure and function in response to electrical stimulation in moderately impaired COPD patients. Respir. Med, 2007; 101:1236-1243
7. Deley G, Eicher JC, Verges B. et al. Do low-frequency electrical myostimulation and aerobic training similarly improve performance in chronic heart failure patients with different exercise capacities? J Rehabil Med, 2008; 40:219-224
8. Dobsak P,Navakova M, Fiser B. et al. Electrical stimulation of skeletal muscles. An alternative to aerobic
Sandro Bartolomei, Valentina Totti, Federico Nigro, Simone Ciacci, Gabriele Semprini, Rocco Di Michele, Matteo Cortesi and Jay R. Hoffman
It is well known that heavy resistance training can result in significant skeletal muscle hypertrophy and in maximal strength and power improvements ( Bartolomei et al., 2018 ). The use of eccentric training, characterized by a greater external load applied during the eccentric phase of the lift, and removed before the concentric phase, has been shown to provide an advantage in strength adaptations compared to traditional loading paradigms ( Walker et al., 2016 ). Athletes competing in strength and power events and interested in maximizing muscle
Blanca Romero-Moraleda, Juan Del Coso, Jorge Gutiérrez-Hellín, Carlos Ruiz-Moreno, Jozo Grgic and Beatriz Lara
estrogen and progesterone are generally observed within the mid-term of the luteal phase (MLP).
Estrogen is a hormone with a purported anabolic function, while progesterone has been related to catabolic pathways ( Davis and Hackney, 2016 ). Given these differences in hormone functions, it has been speculated that skeletal muscle performance might vary with alterations in hormone production during different phases of the menstrual cycle. However, the current body of literature does not provide clear answers on this topic ( Bambaeichi et al., 2004 ; Fridén et al., 2003
Agostina Casamento-Moran, Stefan Delmas, Seoung Hoon Park, Basma Yacoubi and Evangelos A. Christou
-Q: Adaptation and normalisation in Quebec of the Language Screening Test. Rev Neurol (Paris) 2015; 171: 433–436 10.1016/j.neurol.2015.03.008 25917163 Bourgeois-Marcotte J Flamand-Roze C Denier C Monetta L LAST-Q: Adaptation and normalisation in Quebec of the Language Screening Test Rev Neurol (Paris) 2015 171 433 436
Cavanagh PR, Komi P V. Electromechanical delay in human skeletal muscle under concentric and eccentric contractions. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1979; 42: 159–163 10.1007/BF00431022 527577 Cavanagh PR Komi P V