Wang Hong, Qi-Sheng Liang, Lan-Ren Cheng, Xiao-Hong Li, Fu Wei, Wen-Tao Dai and Shi-Tong Li
Chem. 1988; 263:12878-85.
4. Ma J, Shen J, Garrett JP, Lee CA, Li Z, Elsaidi GA, Ritting A, et al. Gene expression of myogenic regulatory factors, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits, and GAP-43 in skeletal muscle following denervation in a rat model. J Orthop Res. 2007; 25: 1498-505.
5. Nosek MT, Martyn JA. Na+ channel and acetylcholine receptor changes in muscle at sites distant from burns do not simulate denervation. J Appl Physiol. 1997; 82: 1333-9.
6. Ibebunjo C, Martyn JA. Thermal injury induces greater
Shabil Mustafa, AC Raj, Jayaprasad Anekar, Darshan Devang Divakar, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al Kheraif, Ravikumar Ramakrishnaiah, Aftab Ahmed Khan, Obaid Abdullah Alshahrani and Narendra Prakash Rai
The study of stages of development is important for interventional therapies, and treatment of trauma and accidents. It is also helpful in forensic identification. The best way to assess the growth and development is to assess skeletal maturity. Radiographs are effective tools for assessing bone maturity in dentistry. During growth, every bone goes through a series of ossification changes that can be seen radiologically. There are some exceptions, but the events are reproducible enough to provide a basis for comparison between different individuals [ 1 ]. Use
Physical activity can be described as a situation in which the skeletal muscles are used for any purpose that results in an increase in energy expenditure compared with the resting state [ 1 ]. Long-term physical activity is associated with a reduction of the morbidity and mortality rates in humans [ 2 , 3 ]. Numerous meta-analyses have shown that regular physical activity has a significant benefit by reducing the risk of mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular causes by 33% and 35% respectively in people without cardiovascular disease [ 4 ]; people
P Dogan, IG Varal, O Gorukmez, MO Akkurt and A Akdag
characterized by short arms and legs, a small chest with short ribs, lung hypoplasia, a prominent forehead, a small chin, and an enlarged abdomen that may be accompanied by poly-hydramnios and hydrops. Typical radiological findings of ACG2 include short long bones, short ribs without fractures, decreased ossification of the pelvis and spine, and normal mineralization in the iliac and calvarial bones [ 3 ].
The COL2A1 gene encodes the cartilage-specific collagen, and mutations in this gene can cause ACG2 and various skeletal dysplasias. Achondrogenesis type 2 is the most
Pimpimol Dangintawat, Jirun Apinun, Thanasil Huanmanop, Sithiporn Agthong, Prim Akkarawanit and Vilai Chentanez
Anatomic variation and supernumerary contents in the superior peroneal tunnel, and the prominence of the retrotrochlear eminence and peroneal tubercle are related to peroneal tendon disorders.
To investigate the prevalence, origin, and insertion of accessory peroneal muscles, the prominence of the retrotrochlear eminence and peroneal tubercle, and their association with peroneal tendon tears.
We examined 109 formalin-embalmed legs of cadavers from Thai donors. Accessory peroneal muscles and peroneal tendon tears were noted. Associations with peroneal tendon tears were evaluated using a χ2 test.
We found 48 accessory peroneal muscles comprising 13 peroneus quartus (PQ), 33 peroneus digiti quinti (PDQ), and 2 unusual muscles. All PDQ originated from the PB tendon and inserted on various parts of the 5th toe. The PQ originated mostly from the PB muscle belly and less from the tendinous part with various insertions on the retrotrochlear eminence, peroneal tubercle, cuboid, and dorsolateral surface of the 5th metatarsal base. Two unusual accessory muscles were identified, 1 coexisting with the PQ. A PB tendon tear was found in 13% of specimens. We found no association between the peroneal tendon tears and the accessory peroneal muscles, or prominence of the retrotrochlear eminence or peroneal tubercle.
The prevalence of PQ, PDQ, and unusual accessory peroneal muscles was concordant with previous findings. We noted a new type of unusual accessory peroneal muscle coexisting with the PQ. No association was found between peroneal tendon tears and the PQ, PDQ, or prominence of the retrotrochlear eminence or peroneal tubercle.
Z Gucev, G Kalcev, N Laban, Z Bozinovski, N Popovski, A Saveski, B Daskalov, D Plaseska-Karanfilska and V Tasic
cause several skeletal syndromes: brachyolmia, spondylometaphyseal dysplasia Kozlowski type, metatropic dysplasia, parastremmatic dysplasia, familial digital arthropathy and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia Maroteaux type. On the other hand, heterozygous TRPV4 missense mutations cause peripheral neuropathy, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type IIC, congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy, and scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy [ 4 ]. A concominant existence of bone dysplasia and neuropathy was also observed: fetal akinesia, understood as a form of
M Bakšienė, E Benušienė, A Morkūnienė, L Ambrozaitytė, A Utkus and V Kučinskas
Barth syndrome (BTHS, OMIM 302060) is a rare X-linked disease characterized by dilated cardiomyopathy, proximal skeletal myopathy and cyclic neutropenia and was first described in 1983 by Barth et al . [ 1 ]. The incidence of BTHS is about 1 in 300,000-400,000 births [ 2 ]. It is also presented with organic aciduria, particularly excess of 3-methylglutaconic acid [ 1 , 3 ]. The excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid in urine can be highly variable and is often intermittent. At the moment, 3-methylglutaconic acid is a biochemical marker for
Sex determination from an unknown human skeleton to identify an individual is an important aspect of forensic anthropology. Although DNA analysis is the most reliable method to identify an individual, it requires special tools and time. One simple method to identify sex is by using the skeletal remains. The identification of sex from skeletal remains is 100% reliable [ 1 ] if the entire skeleton is present; however, skeletal remains are often incomplete or fragmented. To identify sex, several studies used various bones, such as the mandible [ 2 , 3 , 4
Dubravka Zlatarć, Josip Pandurć, Mirko Koršić and Damir Dodig
Wowern N. Microradiographic and histomorphometric indices of mandibles for diagnosis of soteopenia. Scand J Dent Res 1982;90:47-63.
Gordan GS, Genant HK. The aging skeleton. Clin Geriatr Med 1985;1:95-118.
Kribbs PJ, Chesnut III CH, Ott SM, Kilcoyne RF. Relationships between mandibular and skeletal bone in an osteoporotic population. J Prosthet Dent 1989;62:703-7.
Krolner B, Toft B. Vertebral bone loss: an ungeeded side effect of therapeutic