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in the central nervous system (CNS), the testis, skeletal muscle, kidney, liver and lung ( Yaron et al ., 1993 ), the one found in the CNS is the main pharmacological target. Most of the published PEP inhibitors are chemically synthesised compounds based on the N -acyl-l-prolyl-pyrrolidine structure ( Wilson et al ., 2011 ). However, a number of naturally occurring peptidic PEP inhibitors have been reported ( Wilson et al ., 2011 ). Although no physiological effect has been reported after administration of PEP-inhibitory hydrolysates or peptides to date
Leah Quinn, Steven G. Gray, Steven Meaney, Stephen Finn, Owen Kenny and Maria Hayes
soleus muscle of STZ-induced rats, with SA causing a concentration-dependent increase in glucose uptake in the soleus muscle. This was confirmed in L6 myoblast cells, indicating that SA may directly stimulate glucose uptake. In vivo , SA increased insulin sensitivity, probably due to the enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle ( Cherng et al ., 2013 ). Taken together, these results indicate that SA may be clinically useful in the treatment of diabetes.
Nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) plays a key role in the
Antoni Jarczyk, Agata Andrzejewska and Małgorzata Woźniak
Preferences in Meat Consumption of People throughout the Ages Inhabiting the Present—Day Territory of Poland According to Archeaezoological Evidence
This paper describes meat consumption preferences of people from antiquity inhabiting the territory of present day Poland based on archaeological evidence from the skeletal remains of domestic and wild animals. Much information is provided about meat stocks and the scale of meat consumption by various social groups from these ancient times. Skeleton remains of cattle from the Neolithic period, (estimated in Poland to be around 4600-2100 B.C.), constitute on average from 44.0 to 73.0% of all animal remains found whilst the numbers for swine remains were from 36.9 to 19.0%. Looking at the 8 regions of contemporary Poland then in pre-Roman and Roman periods cattle bone remains ranged from 37.5% in East Pomerania to 80.9% in Central Poland. Those from swine ranged from 42.3 and 11.7%, respectively. In the Middle Ages, (defined as 7-13th century A.D.), cattle bone remains constituted from 30 to 50% and those of swine from 28.0 to 52%. In all of the analysed periods goat/sheep remains amounted to 15%. The skeletal remains of horses during the Roman and pre-Roman periods reached different values in different regions, i.e. from 2.7 in Greater Poland to 11.3% in Silesia however in the Middle Ages they were all below 5%. Fish remains consisting of mainly herring, pike and various other species have been continuously found to be present in the diet of people from Neolithic to the Middle ages.
Nowadays in Poland the annual consumption of pork amounts to 42 kg per capita constituting 57.8% of the total meat consumption (72.7 kg), against only about 5 kg of beef.
Marcin Pietrzykowski, Bartłomiej Woś, Marek Pająk and Justyna Likus-Cieślik
The stability of introduced stands depends not only on aboveground but also on the belowground biomass. Results from reclaimed sites often indicate good growth of the aboveground part of stands, but data on the development of root systems are still lacking. Our aim was to assess the vitality of trees, their biomass and the morphology of the root systems of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) introduced on reclaimed landfill waste after zinc and lead flotation in Bukowno (southern Poland). The landfill site was reclaimed 20 years ago and reclamation treatments involved isolation and covering with mineral substrate layers (110–150 cm thickness) which formed a technogenic soil profile. Four research plots (10 m × 10 m) were set up in pure pine stands where soil profiles consisted entirely of flotation waste. Trees on the plots were assayed according to the Kraft and IUFRO classification system. In total, 15 trees of average growth parameters and bio-sociological position (I and II Kraft class) were selected for biomass and root system analyses and the root systems were excavated, washed, measured, weighed and photographed.
Our results support pine as a useful species in reforestation of post-mining areas. However, although pine trees were characterised by good vitality, their root systems were shallow and their depth reduced by up to 60 cm due to strong skeletal loamy substrate. Individual root biomass ranged from 1.2 to 9.1 kg and was comparable to pine root biomass on other reclaimed mining sites. This indicates that during restoration, the thickness of the substrate covering the flotation waste should be increased or the amount of skeletal substrate in the top layers of technosol reduced.
Jaromír Kadlec, Božena Hosnedlová, Václav Řehout, Jindřich Čítek, Libor Večerek and Lenka Hanusová
Insulin-like growth factor-I gene polymorphism and its association with growth and slaughter characteristics in broiler chickens
Chicken insulin-like factor 1 gene (IGF1) is a biological candidate gene for the investigation of growth, body composition, and metabolic and skeletal traits, and is also a positional candidate gene for growth and fat deposition in chickens. Two broiler populations Ross 308 and Cobb 500 were used to study the relationship between IGF1 gene polymorphism and phenotypic traits. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was identified in 132 individuals using the PCR-RFLP technique. Genotypical frequencies were, for genotype AA: 0.83-0.86, and for AC: 0.14-0.17. Associations between IGF1 promotor polymorphism and liver weight (P≤0.05) and liver weight as a percentage of the weight of the poultry carcass with the giblets (P≤0.05), were found in the AC genotype in a comparison of broiler homozygous chickens AA in the Cobb 500 line. In these broilers, the breast muscle and leg muscle weight in the AC genotype were higher, and abdominal fat weight lower compared with AA genotype chickens, but these differences were not significant.