Pei Ling Yeo, Chooi Ling Lim, Soi Moi Chye, Anna Pick Kiong Ling and Rhun Yian Koh
possess a longer shelflife than liposomes [ 47 ]. They prolong the circulation of encapsulated drugs and increase metabolic stability in an emulsified form, whereas liposomes have limited shelflife because of rancidification of their lipid components [ 7 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 ].
Current applications of niosomes
Drug-delivery systems using niosomes through transdermal, parenteral, and ophthalmic routes are well studied [ 27 , 51 , 52 ]. Niosomal delivery via transdermal routes is able to overcome the slow penetration rate of conventional transdermal approaches
same as in BCG Tokyo 172, probably because of the storage environment, shelflife, preparation process, freeze drying, culture medium or natural mutation of the BCG Tokyo 172 species itself. Sequencing of the entire genome sequence of the BCG TRCS type II strain is planned for future work.
Author contributions : WT and S Payungporn made substantial contributions to the concept and design of the project, WT, S Payungporn, SS, and SK substantially contributed to the acquisition of data, and WT, S Payungporn, and S Petsong analyzed and interpreted it. WT and NP