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with microbiological and sensory attributes. Food Chem 2007, 104, 1622-1628. 4. Bingol E.B., Ergun O.: Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the microbiological quality and shelf life of ostrich meat. Meat Sci 2011, 88, 774-785. 5. Botha S.St.C., Hoffman L.C., Britz T.J.: Physical meat quality characteristics of hot-deboned ostrich (Struthio camelus var. Domesticus) muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna during postmortem aging. Meat Sci 2007, 75, 709-718. 6. Bolumar T., Andersen M.L., Orlien V.: Antioxidant active packaging for chicken meat processed by

-298. 16. Papaioannou, G., Chouliara, I., Karatapanis, A.E., Kontominas, M.G., Savvaidis, I.N. (2007). Shelf-life of a Greek whey cheese under modified atmosphere packaging. Int. Dairy J. 17, 358-364. 17. Pintado, C.M.B.S., Oliveira, A., Pampulha, M.E., Ferreira, M.A.S.S. (2005). Prevalence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from soft cheese. Food Microbiol. 22, 79-85. 18. Rosshaug, P.S., Detmer, A., Ingmer, H., Larsen, M.H. (2012). Modeling the growth of

shelf life of fresh orange juice. Innov. Food Sci. Emer. Technol. 11(4), 742-748. E spitia P.J.P., S oares N.D.F.F., D os R eis C oimbra J.S., D e A ndrade N.J., C ruz R.S., M edeiros E.A.A., 2012. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, antimicrobial activity and food packaging applications. Food Biopr. Technol. 5(5), 1447-1464. FAO [Food and Agriculture Organization], 2011. Global food losses and food waste. Study conducted for the International congress SAVE FOOD! At Interpack, Düsseldorf. F u P., X ia Q., H wang H-M., R ay P.C., Y u H., 2014. Mechanisms

–70. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1999.485.7. Bizjak J., Slatnar A., Stampar F., Veberic R. 2012. Changes in quality and biochemical parameters in ‘Idared’ apples during prolonged shelf life and 1-MCP treatment. Food Science and Technology International 18: 569–577. DOI: 10.1177/1082013212442178. Brackmann A., Wietzke Guarienti A.J., Saquet A.A., Hettwer Giehl R.F., Sestari I. 2005. Controlled atmosphere storage conditions for ‘Pink Lady’ apples. Ciência Rural 35: 504–509. DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782005000300003. [in Portuguese with English abstract] Brackmann A., Waclawovsky A

increase poultry product shelf-life. J Appl Poult Res 1999, 8 , 185-190. 5. Duszkiewicz-Reinhard W., Grzybowski R., Sobczak E.: Theory and exercises in general and technical microbiology. Edition of SGGW, Warszawa, 1999, pp. 95-106. 6. Fehlhaber K.: Microbiological problems in slaughter poultry. Med Weter 1996, 52 , 758-762. 7. Gill, A.O., Holley R.A.: Inhibition of bacterial growth on ham and bologna by lysozyme, nisin and EDTA. Food Res Int 2000, 33 , 83-91. 8. Hughey V.L., Johnson E.A.: Antimicrobial activity of lysozyme against bacteria involved in food spoilage

of shrink film wrapping and storage temperature on the shelf life and quality of pomegranate fruits cv. Ganesh. Postharvest Biology and Technology 22: 61–69. DOI: 10.1016/s0925-5214(00)00181-2. Nunes M.C.N., Brecht J.K., Morais A.M.M.B., Sargent S.A. 1998. Controlling temperature and water loss to maintain ascorbic acid levels in strawberries during post-harvest handling. Journal of Food Science 63: 1033–1036. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1998.tb15848.x. Purvis A.C. 1983. Moisture loss and juice quality from waxed and individually seal-packaged citrus fruits

Influence of harvest date and storage conditions on the content of chlorophyll pigments in pear peels

During each season, pears were harvested on three dates at four-day intervals. The fruit was stored for 150 days in temperatures of 0-0.5°C in common cold storage (NA - normal atmosphere) and also in controlled atmospheres (CA) of different gaseous content: 0.8% CO2 + 2% O2, 2% CO2 + 2% O2 and 3% CO2 + 3% O2. After removing the pears from storage they were additionally stored for seven days in a temperature of 17°C - simulated shelf life. The content of chlorophyll pigments (chlorophyll a + b) was determined after each harvest date, storage time and simulated shelf life. Based on the results, I concluded that the a + b chlorophyll content in the peel of both pear cultivars significantly decreased along with the subsequent harvest date. In addition, the storage conditions had a significant influence on the studied factor. Compared to the normal atmosphere, the controlled atmosphere conditions were more efficient in slowing the yellowing of the fruit due to reduced chlorophyll degradation. The atmosphere consisting of 3% CO2 + 3% O2 or 2% CO2 + 2% O2 was more favourable for the higher content of chlorophyll a + b in the peel of ‘Conference’ pears than 0.8% CO2 + 2% O2. In the case of ‘Concorde’ pears, the influence of particular compositions of CA on the content of chlorophyll a + b changed over the years.


Grafting of vegetable seedlings is a unique horticultural technology, practised for more than 50 years, to overcome problems associated with intensive cultivation on limited arable land. Grafting vegetables can protect against soil-borne diseases and nematodes, against abiotic stresses such as high/low temperatures, salinity, drought or excessive soil-water content, and against elevated soil concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants. In addition, the grafted plant takes up water and nutrients from the soil more efficiently and retains its vitality for longer periods during the growing season. However, rootstock/scion combinations may affect and alter the final size, yield, and quality of fruits from grafted plants, both immediately postharvest and during prolonged storage. These alterations may be attributed in part to differing production environments and methods, the type of rootstock/scion combinations used, and harvest date. The aim of this paper is to review the most recent literature on the effects of grafting on postharvest quality of fruits/vegetables: tomato, watermelon, melon, eggplant, cucumber and pepper. The review will conclude by identifying several prospects for future research aimed at improving the quality of grafted fruit/vegetable products.


‘Braeburn’ apples from three harvests after 6-month storage in controlled atmosphere were measured at 670 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS), ranked on decreasing μ a670 (increasing maturity), classified as less (LeM), medium and more mature (MoM), randomised into three batches per harvest and analysed after 1, 8 and 14 days of shelf life. LeM and MoM apples were measured in the 630-900 nm range by TRS, and analysed for sensory profile (firm, crispy, juicy, mealy) and pulp mechanical characteristics (firmness, stiffness, energy-to-rupture). All data were processed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). According to sensory intensity scores, fruits were either divided into five classes (very low – VL; low – L; medium – M; high – H; very high – VH) separately for every attribute, or clustered into four groups, each one representing a specific sensory profile. The absorption spectra showed a maximum at 670 nm (chlorophyll-a) and μ a670 was higher in the VH class for firm, crispy and juicy and in the VL and L classes for mealy. The scattering spectra had a decreasing trend with the wavelength increase, and μ s’ values were lower in the VH class for firm and crispy, and higher in the VH class for mealy and in the VL ones for juicy. PCA underlined that μ s’ values were negatively related to firmness and μ a670, and that μ a690, μ a730, μ a830, μ a850 and μ a900 were opposed to mealiness. PC scores differed among the four sensory profiles and increased from VL to VH classes for firmness, crispiness and juiciness and from VH to VL classes for mealiness.


The goal of this three-year study was to develop a quarantine-like treatment for two commercial sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars, based on physical treatments and packaging materials, and to understand, in part, the chilling resistance-mode-of-action.

This research has revealed that individual shrink packaging following prestorage-HWRB treatment, significantly reduced chilling injuries and chilling severity, as shown by very low percentage of CI and a very low CI index, while maintaining a good overall quality (less decay incidence and weight loss) after 21 d at 1.5°C plus 3 d at 20°C (sea transport to USA and Japan from Israel + marketing simulation).

The chilling injury reduction is mainly due to a significant water loss reduction by the shrink film, while HWRB treatment contributed mainly to a significant decay reduction, and to some degree of inhibition of chilling development. Cultivar ‘Selika’ was found less susceptible to chilling then cultivar ‘7158’.