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The study focuses on the process of being aware of own I in children acquiring Slovak language at an early age and living in a Slovak family. The aim of the research is to understand the process of acquiring the means by which children refer to themselves in the interaction with an adult person. The research uses the qualitative longitudinal method of individual case study. A child’s speech is researched from the very first occurrence of a self-reference mean in 16th month up to the upper limit of early age (36th month) and all that is based on audio-visual records transcripts. The following are researched: (a) succession of self-reference means acquisition in early childhood, (b) function of self-reference linguistic means, (c) process of child’s self-awareness. The results obtained based on the linguistic data in Slovak language are compared with the results of similarly focused researches in English, French, Polish, Russian and Bulgarian language. The research reveals some constants in the development of self-reference instruments that can be observed throughout various language-cultural environments. The research is a part of solutions within the grant project VEGA 1/0099/16 Personal and Social Deixis in Slovak Language.


Life is full of ambiguities, but as teachers we generally try to teach our students in a manner that sanitizes knowledge of all of its ambiguities. In doing so, we create an educational environment which forces students to learn in a rather meaningless fashion and this in turn leads to a lack of vitality and relevance within the academy. This need not be the case. As teachers, we should reflect on the epistemological foundations of our theories of learning and teaching and to closely examine how our teaching devices and techniques adhere to our theories. Furthermore, we need to be receptive to making any changes in our theories and teaching practice that may be warranted by the critical and creative thinking process that we apply to our professional activities. This paper attempts to guide readers through such a reflexive thinking process by trying to loosely establish a relationship between the deep concept of ambiguity (uncertainty) and some of our theories of learning via the acceptance of the view that the ultimate foundation of all human knowledge is ambiguity. We create and establish the meaning of all of our knowledge via a process of self-referencing logos. An implication of the application of self-referencing logic is the notion that a teacher can simultaneously learn and teach (“the learning teacher”). Thus, this can serve as the basis for developing the model of the “reflexive practitioner” in the teaching profession.


The present article highlights the importance of the comparative longitudinal study of massmediated content in comparing the evolution of public spheres in neighbouring countries. In order to contextualize our research on the Estonian media system, we simultaneously conducted a similar study on Finnish and Russian newspapers of the same period. The 20th century was a period of rapid change in Estonian society and, compared with Finnish and Russian newspapers, Estonian newspapers paid more attention to issues that were labelled as “cultural”. In the Estonian press the understanding that ‘culture’ is important prevailed, as it was one of the most stable elements of content throughout the century. The significance of governance-politics and economics depended on the political situation and historical context. The interpretation of data is based on the binaries “centre” vs. “periphery” and “self-reference” vs. “other-reference”.

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1 The term ‘Pahari’ is employed in this article to describe all of the Chittagong Hill Tracts communities collectively. Despite a distinct lack of unified identity in the CHT before the 20th century (van Schendel 1992), this term has gained popularity as a term of self-reference for many communities in the CHT, and roughly translates to ‘Hill People’ (Uddin 2010a). The arguably more widely employed term ‘Jumma’ is avoided in this article where possible due to its connotations with the Jumma-Nation building project by ethnic based organizations in the CHT that has

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Available at: 11. Bandura, A. (1986). Self - efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman. Beuchamp A & Murdode; T (2009) Cheating 25, June 2013. Bisong, NN (2009). Cheating tendencies in Examination among secondary schools in Nigeria: A case study of schools in the Odulepani local Government Area. Journals. Sage Brett, Ekant, & Pervant (2007). Self Referencing and consumer Evaluations of Larger - sized female models: A