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success by adolescents and judging one’s competence have important consequences for an adaptive or maladaptive lifestyle. This theory holds that there are two primary goal perspectives operating in achievement contexts namely, task and ego involvement. When task-involved, perceived ability is self-referenced and emphasis is placed on task mastery, the exertion of effort, and the development of personal skills or knowledge of the activity. When ego-involved, individuals are concerned with demonstrating normatively referenced ability and, thus, perceive a successful event

) characterized by cooperation and emphasis on effort and improvement ( Newton et al., 2000 ). In ego climates, athletes are forced to show superiority over others. Achievement is not self-referenced and athletes feel that success depends on things beyond their control. In task climates, athletes and coaches are focused on improving athletes’ competence. Achievement is self-referenced, and athletes feel that they are partially responsible for their success ( Duda, 2001 ). In sport psychology, one theoretical framework extensively used to understand motivation in athletes is the