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Anesthesiologists are accepted as aiming to be outstanding in patient safety and medical qualityimprovement. However, both preventable and inevitable adverse events still persist [ 1 , 2 ]. According to the Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) database, the incidence of perioperative cardiac arrest within 24 h was 31:10,000 in 2005 with a mortality rate of 90% [ 3 , 4 ]. The Royal College of Anesthesiologists of Thailand (RCAT) initiated knowledge management tools using research to improve anesthesia processes and outcomes. Several strategies have been
Appraisal costs were defined as costs that related to assuring quality of care at various stages during the delivery of maternal and newborn care services. Unfortunately, they could not be measured directly. The proxies were obtained from annual expenses of which NHSO paid to engage providers in qualityimprovement activities by meeting targets of selected quality indicators under its Payment for Performance (P4P) initiatives, such as a percentage of low birth weight and hospital-accreditation status.
Failure costs were defined as costs incurred as a