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Local Government Efficiency in German Municipalitiesicipalities

/Moesen 2009b ; Kalb/Geys/Heinemann 2012 ). Following this 'common standard' has the advantage that our results remain comparable with these studies. As our prime input variable (C), we employ total current primary expenditures in the municipality in 2001. This includes all spending in the current budget except interest and amortization repayments from local public debts. Although including these debt service costs does not affect the results in any significant manner; details available upon request. Spending from the capital budget is ignored as decisions to invest in

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Measuring citizen participation in urban regeneration: a reflection on the construction of the participation index for the Bip/Zip programme in Lisbon

last few years met with an unstable banking system, the growth of fiscal deficit, public debt, and unemployment. To tackle this situation, the European Union pressured the Portuguese government to adopt austerity measures, which were eventually agreed with the Troika (International Monetary Fund, European Central Bank, and European Commission) in 2011 under the requirement of a €78 billion bailout package ( Caldas 2012 ; OECD 2015 ). The main goal of the Memorandum of Understanding on Specific Economic Conditionality (MoU) between Portugal and the Troika was to

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