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Materials and methods
The present study, including assent forms for vulnerable participants (those aged 7-12 years, and 13-18 years old) was approved by Institutional Review Board of the Department for Development of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine as part of Ministry of Public Health, Thailand (approval No. RLC0029/55), and IRB of Sunpasit Prasong Hospital. We enrolled 116 participants in this study into 4
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Saliva as a microfluidic system offers numerous advantages for both general and oral health diagnostic and therapeutic procedures since its assembly is quick, stress-free, inexpensive and non-invasive. Moreover, saliva is frequently referred to as a mirror of the body due to the fact that it can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. More than a decade ago the term “Salivaomics” has been introduced with the aim of emphasizing the development of research, knowledge and applications of five salivary constituents: proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome. Contemporary oral health care delivery in pediatric and special care dentistry is focused toward the development of new diagnostic and therapeutical procedures that are essentially noninvasive due to common issue of intolerability to invasive procedures among these patients, with the possibility of increasing participation rates. Besides the criteria of being easily and non-invasive collected, there are additional standards that should be met before routine application in everyday clinical practice; the existence of specific biomarkers for a disease, and ability of having its biomarkers detected using present-day equipment. For example, there are recent suggestions that a salivary RNA panel could objectively differentiate children with autism spectrum disorder from their neurotypical peers. In addition, due to the ease of the administration, the oral cavity is an attractive site for the drug delivery systems development because through this route it is possible to realize mucosal and transmucosal, systemic effect. All these contemporary advances extended the salivary diagnostic approach from the oral to general health pointing towards a promising future of salivary diagnostics for personalized medicine devices.
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Salivary α-amylase (sAA) and chromogranin A (sCgA) are at the forefront of current biochemical research on anxiety. Their use is being driven by the sudden surge of interest in “salivaomics,” a new field in medicine studying saliva’s genetic code, proteome and methabolom. Interestingly, it is not the primary functions of the enzyme and the protein, but the ingenious capture of their secondary ones (maintenance of the acid-alkaline balance and bactericidal / antifungal action) that allows for a swift, precise and pain-free measurement under physical and mental duress. Upon stimulation, sAA and sCgA are almost simultaneously released. Studying them allows a closer look at the autonomic nervous system (ANS) as opposed to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), which involves a long cascade of complex, hard to measure and interpret bio-chemical reactions.
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://www.uniprot.org [ 30 , 31 ]. Protein primary sequences were decomposed into overlapping pentapeptides offset by one residue, ie, MGVPF, GVPFF, and VPFFS. Next, each pentapeptide was analyzed for occurrences in viral proteomes using Peptide Match program ( https://research.bioinformatics.udel.edu/peptidematch ) [ 32 ].
Proteomes from nine viruses were analyzed: influenza A virus, H1N1 (NCBI:txid211044), influenza A virus, H3N2 (NCBI:txid385580), influenza A virus, H5N1 (NCBI:txid93838), influenza A virus, H10N7 (NCBI:txid382838), influenza B virus (NCBI:txid518987), and influenza