responses, and urine reflux [ 5 , 10 , 15 ].
The persistence of these factors is able to contribute to chronic prostatic inflammation. Prostatecancer (PC) is the second common cancer among American men. The role of inflammation or infection remains unclear in different cancer sites and the prostate. Recent studies in different areas, such as epidemiology, histopathology, and molecular pathology, give emerging evidence of the possible role of prostatic inflammation as an important factor involved in PC initiation and progression [ 16 , 17 , 18 ]. Inflammation is
these studies has resulted in the ambiguity in the correlation between high-risk HPV infection and urinary system tumors. This article describes the progress in the study on the relationship between high-risk HPV infection and tumors of the urinary system.
Relationship between high-risk HPV infection and tumors of the urinary system
High-risk HPV infection and prostatecancer
Studies have suggested that HPV infection, especially the high-risk type, is highly detectable in prostate carcinoma tissue. This characteristic indicates that HPV infection has a
Radosław Kujawski, Justyna Baraniak, Małgorzata Kania, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Anna Bogacz, Marcin Ożarowski, Michał Cichocki, Ewa Spoz and Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak
11. Azrad M, Denmark-Wahnefried W. Dietary omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and prostatecancer - letter. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2012; 5(5):798-99.
12. Lieberman R. Chemoprevention of prostatecancer: current status and future directions. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2002; 21(3-4):297-309.
13. Gravas S, Oelke M. Current status of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms and BPH. World J Urol 2010; 28(1):9-15.
14. Parsons JK, Schenk JM, Arnold KB, Messer K
Radosław Kujawski, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Anna Bogacz, Monika Karasiewicz, Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak, Bogusław Czerny and Przemysław M. Mrozikiewicz
from Epilobium sp. herbs induce apoptosis in human hormone-dependent prostatecancer cells by activating the mitochondrial pathway. J Pharm Pharmacol 2013; 65(7):1044-54.
7. Hevesi TB, Blazics B, Kery A. Polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity of Epilobium species. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2009; 15;49(1):26-31.
8. Wichtl M. Herbal Drug and Phytopharmaceuticals. 3rd ed. Stuttgart 2004.
9. Van-Hellemont J. Compedium de Phytotherapie. Brussels 1986.
10. Lowe FC, Fagelman E. Phytotherapy in the treatment
Radosław Kujawski, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Monika Karasiewicz, Anna Bogacz, Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak, Bogusław Czerny and Przemysław M. Mrozikiewicz
4. Von Löw EC, Perabo FG, Siener R, Müller SC. Review. Facts and fiction of phytotherapy for prostatecancer: a critical assessment of preclinical and clinical data. In Vivo 2007; 21(2):189-204.
5. Dedhia RC, McVary KT. Phytotherapy for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol 2008; 179(6):2119-25.PDR for Herbal Medicines. 4th ed. Thompson Healtcare Inc., USA 2007:903-4.
6. Van-Hellemont J. Compedium de Phytotherapie. Association Pharmaceutique, Brussels 1986.
7. Wichtl M. Herbal
cancers [ 12 ].
Prostatecancer is one of the most common solid organ malignancies in men. The presence of a number of unfavorable factors, such as high-fat high-cholesterol diet and hyperlipidemia, can increase the risk of prostatecancer [ 13 ]. SR-BI plays a key role in the incidence and development of prostatecancer, especially in the secretion and activity of antigens in prostatecancer cells. Downregulation of SR-BI in prostatecancer cells (C4-2 and LNCaP cell lines) significantly reduces the viability of cells and the secretion of prostate-specific antigen
Mariola Dreger, Jolanta Wegenke, Joanna Makowiecka, Tomasz Michalik and Karolina Wielgus
2001; 56:483-489. doi: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/S0014-827X(01)01067-9
6. Vitalone A, McCroll J, Thome D, Costa LG, Tita B. Characterization of the effect of Epilobium extract on human cell proliferation. Pharmacology 2003; 69:79-87. doi: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1159/000072360
7. Stolarczyk M, Naruszewicz M, Kiss AK. Extracts from Epilobium sp. herbs induce apoptosis in human hormone-dependent prostatecancer cells by activating the mitochondrial pathway. J Pharm Pharmacol 2013; 65:1044-1054. doi: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1111/jphp.12063
L.F. Zuo H.Y. Upregulation of HIF-1alpha via activation of ERK and PI3K pathway mediated protective response to microwave-induced mitochondrial injury in neuron-like cells Mol. Neurobiol. 2014 50 3 1024 1034
 Li Q., Fu G.B., Zheng J.T., He J., Niu X.B., Chen Q.D., et al., NADPH oxidase subunit p22(phox)-mediated reactive oxygen species contribute to angiogenesis and tumor growth through AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in prostatecancer, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2013, 1833(12), 3375-3385. 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2013.09.018 Li Q. Fu G.B. Zheng J.T. He J. Niu X
Anna Bogacz, Monika Karasiewicz, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Marcin Ożarowski, Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Radosław Kujawski, Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak, Beata Mrozikiewicz-Rakowska, Teresa Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, Bogusław Czerny, Edmund Grześkowiak and Przemysław M. Mrozikiewicz
1. Zhang M, Binns CW, Lee AH. Tea consumption and ovarian cancer risk: a case-control study in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11:713-718.
2. Jian L, Xie LP, Lee AH, Binns CW. Protective effect of green tea against prostatecancer: a case-control study in southeast China Int J Cancer 2004; 108:130-135.
3. Foti RS, Wahlstrom JL. The role of dietary supplements in cytochrome P450-mediated drug interactions. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2008; 7:66-84.
4. Crespy V, Williamson G
Su-zhen Jiang, Jia-jia Zheng, Xiang-Mei Chen, Ting Zhang, Qiang Xu, Hui Zhuang and Fengmin Lu
response by GRP78 in prostatecancer. Methods Enzymol 2011;489:245-257.
43 Schwarze S, Rangnekar VM. Targeting plasma membrane GRP78 for cancer growth inhibition. Cancer Biol Ther 2010;9:153-155.
44 Gwak GY, Lee DH, Moon TG, Choi MS, Lee JH, Koh KC, et al. The correlation of hepatitis B virus pre-S mutation with cellular oxidative DNA damage in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology 2008;55:2028-2032.