Mohanad Abusultan, Pavel Hanzel, D. Durcansky and A. Hajtman
, Comber H, Forman D, Bray F. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European journal of cancer. 2013; 49(6):1374-403.
4. Venable DD, Hastings D, Misra RP. Unusual metastatic patterns of prostate adenocarcinoma. The Journal of urology. 1983; 130(5):980-5.
5. MINTZ ER, SMITH GG. Autopsy findings in 100 cases of prostaticcancer. New England Journal of Medicine. 1934; 211(11):479-87.
6. Flocks RH, Boatman DL. Incidence of head and neck metastases from genito urinary neoplasms
Accurate staging of prostatecancer is essential to inform prognosis and to stratify patients for appropriate management. MRI affords excellent soft tissue differentiation making it the most accurate modality for preoperative local T-staging of prostatecancer. 1 According to European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines, local staging investigations are only indicated for intermediate and high-risk patient groups. 1 The high accuracy of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for detection of index lesions can aid T-staging, and can also identify
Mariarosa Pascale, Cinzia Aversa, Renzo Barbazza, Barbara Marongiu, Salvatore Siracusano, Flavio Stoffel, Sando Sulfaro, Enrico Roggero, Serena Bonin and Giorgio Stanta
Conventional clinical parameters alone are inadequate for differentiating indolent and aggressive prostatecancer. Therefore, molecular biomarkers are needed to better define prognosis of prostatecancer patients.
Neuroendocrine markers could be used to detect particularly aggressive variants of prostatecancer. Typical markers used to identify neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in tumor tissue are neuron specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin A (CgA) and synaptophysin (Syp). 1 - 3 Neuroendocrine differentiation, measured by one or more of
Andrej Zist, Eitan Amir, Alberto F. Ocana and Bostjan Seruga
Disclosure: B. Seruga received honoraria for his advisory role at Sanofi. All remaining authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
1. Jespersen CG, Norgaard M, Borre M. Androgen-deprivation therapy in treatment of prostatecancer and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke: a nationwide Danish population-based cohort study. Eur Urol 2014; 65: 704-9.
2. Greenspan SL, Coates P, Sereika SM, Nelson JB, Trump DL, Resnick NM. Bone loss after initiation of androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostatecancer. J Clin
Ji Chen, Yong Zhao, Xin Li, Peng Sun, Muwen Wang, Ridong Wang and Xunbo Jin
Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E. Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 2010; 60 : 277-300.
Brawley OW, Ankerst DP, Thompson IM. Screening prostatecancer. CA Cancer Clin 2009; 59 : 264-73.
Albersen PC. A challenge to contemporary management of prostatecancer. Nat Clin Pract Urol 2009; 6 : 12-3.
Avazpour I, Roslan RE, Bayat P, Saripan MI, Nordin AJ, Abdullah RSAR. Segmenting CT images of bronchogenic carcinoma with bone metastases using
Marina Hodolic, Laure Michaud, Virginie Huchet, Sona Balogova, Valérie Nataf, Khaldoun Kerrou, Marika Vereb, Jure Fettich and Jean-Noël Talbot
1. Balogova S, Kobetz A, Huchet V, Michaud L, Kerrou K, Paycha F, et al. Évolution de la demande des examens de médecine nucléaire pour cancer de la prostate depuis l’enregistrement de la fluorocholine (18F): analyse sur deux ans à l’hôpital Tenon. Méd Nucl 2012; 36: 363-70.
2. Mohler JL, Armstrong AJ, Bahnson RR, Boston B, Busby JE, D’Amico AV, et al. Prostatecancer, Version 3.2012: featured updates to the NCCN guidelines. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2012; 10: 1081-7.
3. Even-Sapir E, Metser
Xiaozhi Zheng, Ping Ji, Hongwei Mao and Jianqun Hu
Milecki P, Martenka P, Antczak A, Kwias Z. Radiotherapy combined with hormonal therapy in prostatecancer: the state of the art. Cancer Manag Res 2010; 2 : 243-53.
Wolf AM, Wender RC, Etzioni RB, Thompson IM, D'Amico AV, Volk RJ, et al. American Cancer Society Guideline for the Early Detection of ProstateCancer: Update 2010. CA Cancer J Clin 2010; 60 : 70-98.
Brawley OW, Ankerst DP, Thompson IM. Screening for ProstateCancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2009; 59 : 264
Several modes of radical local treatment are on disposal for patients with localized or locally advanced prostatecancer. Beside radical prostatectomy, radical irradiation in the form of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and permanent brachytherapy (PB) or high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) are established ways of treatment. Both treatment modalities should be considered as equally effective in the absence of randomized trials. Similar consideration should also be given to different ways of radiation treatment. 1 , 2 When radiation therapy
Arndt-Christian Müller, Johannes Mischinger, Theodor Klotz, Bernd Gagel, Gregor Habl, Gencay Hatiboglu and Michael Pinkawa
Dose escalated intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT with radiation doses ≥ 76 Gy) is a highly effective, curative treatment option for localized prostatecancer. Biochemical control is directly related to radiation dose with a dose effect per each additional Gy. 1 For example, escalation from 70 to 80 Gy is connected with a 15% increase in PSA control. This dose effect is described for all risk groups. However, an increased radiation dose is also associated with rising levels of grade ≥ 2 acute and chronic toxicity. 1 Lower