This is a study of a medical injection factory-Babylon carried out in order to achieve proper mechanical and morphological properties, PP has been injection molded by using cold runner injection molding machine with temperature variation (198, 200, 203……220°C) for ten samples. The physical and mechanical properties of PP product were examined. It has been found that the Shore hardness decreases linearly with injection molding temperature increasing. The tensile strength has a similar behavior to the hardness. However, it has been found that the MIF (Melt Index Flow) rates increases with the increase of injection molding temperature. The density of PP has been found for both virgin PP and the samples, it has been found that the density decreases with increasing operation temperature. FTIR (Fourier Transmission Infrared) spectra were taken for both samples with high and low operation temperature. Besides the SEM (Scanning Electronic Microscopy) test shows the difference in the morphology of the product surface and the PP product at high and low operation temperature. Moreover, for all these properties, the PP product exhibits good mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength, density) for the samples produced at temperature lower than 207°C. While the physical properties such as MIF improved with injection temperature increasing, additionally, the SEM images show that the sample produced in low temperature have surface damage.
In this paper we have investigated the effect of 1,2,3-trideoxy-4,6:5,7-bis-O-[(4-propylphenyl)methylene]-nonitol sorbitol used in varying amounts (0.01 - 1 wt %) on isotactic polypropylene (iPP) matrix. We have used dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study glass transition temperatures and crystallinity as a function of the nucleating agent concentration. Isotactic polypropylene samples showed a strong dependency on amount of α nucleating agent used. An increasing content of sorbitol based nucleating agent led to an increase of crystallization temperature upon cooling from the melt at constant rate and a decrease of the glass transition temperatures.
At the present time, characterised by worsening environmental conditions, the protection of human organism against irreversible damage is necessary. Protective clothing on base of smart textiles represents the future in human clothing. In this article, the effect of photochromic pigments on spinnability, drawability and properties of pigmented polypropylene (PP) fibres is presented.
Mechanical properties (tenacity and elongation at break, Young’s modulus), thermo-mechanical properties and the factor of average orientation of fibres were evaluated and discussed. The obtained results indicate a possibility of fibres preparation with photochromic pigments.
Polypropylene/carbon nanotubes (PP/CNTs) nancomposites were prepared with a single screw extruder by adding maleic anhydride-grafted poplypropylene (PP-g-MAH) as compatibilizer to polypropylene (PP) with different amounts of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the range of 0.1–0.7 wt.%. Structure and morphology of the prepared samples were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarizing light microscopy (PLM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that PP spherulites decreased in size when CNTs were introduced into the polymer. Mechanical properties of the samples were also studied. Tensile tests showed that with increasing amount of CNTs the strain at break decreased whereas the Young’s modulus was improved of 16.41 % to 36.05 % and tensile strength of 36.67 % to 64.70 % compared to pristine PP. The SEM microphotographs showed that majority of the CNTs were dispersed individually and oriented along the shear flow direction.
This paper describes the separation of oxidation resistant components from the seeds of pomegranate (PSA), grape (GSE) and sea buckthorn (SSE). The anti-oxidation properties of the resultant extracts, used as the natural anti-oxidants for polypropylene (PP), were compared with Irganox1010. The effects of these natural antioxidants on the antioxidant levels of PP samples were estimated by thermal oxidative aging and micromixed rheology, OIT, XRD, SEM, TEM and mechanical properties tests of samples before and after aging. The results show that adding PSA, GSE and SSE can obviously increase the mechanical properties of PP. In addition, the molding stability of polypropylene raw material is prolonged and improved. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the PP samples after 240 h of thermal oxidative aging indicates that, the best results, closest to the anti-oxidation ability of Irganox1010, can be obtained when the additive amount is 0.5% (wt%) for PSE or 0.7% (wt%) for GSE.
Nanocomposites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in epoxy resin and polypropylene (PP) are studied. The effect of matrix viscosity on the degree of dispersion of nanotubes is determined by rheological methods. Rheology and microwave properties are correlated to estimate the optimal limits of nanofiller content required for improving the performance of nanocomposites. Rheological percolation threshold is determined for both types nanocomposites, ϕp=0.27% for the epoxy/MWCNT and; ϕp=1.5% for the PP/MWCNT, as found critical for achieving a network structure of interacting nanotubes in the matrix polymer. Good electromagnetic shielding efficiency was obtained for nanocomposites at nanotube contents above the rheological percolation. Low viscosity matrix facilitates contacts between MWCNTs, resulting in appearance of electromagnetic shielding at very low percolation threshold.
In this paper, the effects of coupling agent and lignin extracted from waste cotton stalks in Xinjiang on thermal-oxygen aging properties of polypropylene (PP) composites were studied. The melt index test and indoor thermal oxygen aging test was carried out on the samples treated with coupling agent. The mechanical properties, surface micromorphology, rheological properties and element composition of the materials before and after 30 days of aging were studied. The results showed that the titanate coupling agent was the best for improving the melt index and mechanical properties of PP/cotton stalk lignin composites. After the 30-day thermal oxygen aging test, the samples with 2% lignin had the best impact strength and retention rate of fracture elongation, reaching 68.9% and 77.3% respectively. The sample with 3% lignin content had the smoothen surface, no crack appeared. After aging, the increase of C=O was the least, and the crystal peak area decreased less.
Thermal and thermo-catalytic degradation of polyolefins as a simple and efficient method of landfill clearing
Thermal degradation of the low density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP) and the municipal waste plastics was investigated. The thermo-catalytic degradation of LDPE and PP was studied in the presence of the following catalysts: four different types of montmorillonite: K5, K10, K20, K30 and - for comparison - zeolites (natural - clinoptilolite, YNa+ and YH+). Thermal analyses TG-DTA-MS of polymers and polymer-catalyst mixtures were carried out in an argon flow atmosphere in isothermal and dynamic conditions. The following order was found: in lowering the reaction temperature for LDPE degradation YH+ > mK5 > mK20 = mK30 >mK10 > NZ > YNa+; for PP degradation: mK20 > mK5 = mK30 >mK10 > YH+ > NZ > YNa+. The activity tests were carried out in a stainless steel batch reactor under atmospheric pressure in a wide temperature range of up to 410°C, and using the atmosphere of argon flow. The liquid products were analysed by the GC-MS method. The hydrocarbons in the liquid products from thermal degradation of polymers were broadly distributed in the carbon fractions of C8 to C26 - for LDPE and C6 to C31 for PP.
This paper describes an experimental investigation on mono steel and polypropylene (PP) fiber-reinforced concrete beams. The main aim of this present study is to evaluate undamaged and damaged reinforced concrete (RC) beams incorporated with mono fibers such as steel and PP fibers under free-free constraints. In this experimental work, a total of nine RC beams were cast and analyzed in order to study the dynamic behavior as well as the static load behavior of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRCs) and polypropylene fiber-reinforced concrete (PPFRCs). Damage to the SFRC and PPFRC beams was obtained by cracking the concrete for one of the beams in each set under four-point bending tests with different percentage variations of the damage levels such as 50%, 70% and 90% of the maximum ultimate load. The fundamental natural frequency and damping values obtained through the dynamic tests for the SFRC and PPFRC beams were compared with a control RC beam at each level of damage that had been acquired through static tests. The static experimental test results emphasize that the SFRC beam has attained a higher ultimate load compared with the control RC beam.
This study focuses to develop a new hybrid Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) and assesses the performance of a new hybrid ECC based on the steel short random fiber reinforcement. This hybrid ECC aims to improve the tensile strength of cementitious material and enhance better flexural performance in an RC beam. In this study, four different mixes have been investigated. ECC with Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) fiber and PolyPropylene (PP) fiber of 2.0% volume fraction are the two Mono fiber mixes; ECC mix with PVA fiber of 0.65% volume fraction hybridized with steel fiber of 1.35% volume fraction, PP fiber of 0.65% volume fraction hybridized with steel of 1.35% volume fraction are the two additional different hybrid mixes. The material properties of mono fiber ECC with 2.0 % of PVA is kept as the reference mix in this study. The hybridization with fibers has a notable achievement on the uniaxial tensile strength, compressive strength, Young’s modulus, and flexural behavior in ECC layered RC beams. From the results, it has been observed that the mix with PVA fiber of 0.65% volume fraction hybrid with steel fiber of 1.35% volume fraction exhibit improvements in tensile strength, flexural strength, and energy absorption. The PP fiber of 0.65% volume fraction hybridized with steel of 1.35% volume fraction mix has reasonable flexural performance and notable achievement in displacement ductility over the reference mix.