with the transition to the new post-industrial information and knowledge economy.
Throughout the early 2000s Malmö, in parallel with other cities, sought to reinvent itself using tools such as placemarketing, water front development and investments in tourism and the events industry ( Dannestam 2011 ). The aim was, as in many other cities, to attract investments and new inhabitants to the city. As we know from the literature on urban renewal many of these former industrial cities are characterised by growing inequalities (cf. Schiller and Çağlar 2011 ; Fainstein
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Nel E. and Binns, T., 2002b: PlaceMarketing, Tourism Promotion and Community-based Local Economic Development in Post-apartheid South Africa: The Case of Still Bay - the “Bay of Sleeping Beauty”. In: Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 32, pp. 184-208.
Nel, E. and Binns, T, 2003: Putting ’Developmental Local Government’ into Practice: The Experience of South Africa
Stefania Środa-Murawska, Jadwiga Biegańska and Leszek Dąbrowski
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