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, A. (2012), ‘A destination-branding model: An empirical analysis based on stakeholders,’ Tourism Management, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 646–661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.07.006 Gertner, D. (2011), ‘Unfolding and configuring two decades of research and publications on place marketing and place branding,’ Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 91–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/pb.2011.7 Gilmore, F. (2002), ‘A country-can it be repositioned? Spain – the success story of country branding,’ The Journal of Brand Management, vol. 9, no. 4/5, pp

Abstract

The main aim of the article is to present the relationship between urban policy and the marketing activity of the presidents of Wrocław, Wałbrzych, Legnica, and Jelenia Góra during the period of the 2014 local government election campaign. Analysis of the marketing activity of the presidents, conducted via chosen social media, enables presentation of the most important conditions and reasons for using urban policy in the competition for the support of citizens – potential voters. First, it will show that the marketing actions of a president during an election campaign are not the means of creating the image of a city but gaining the support of voters. Second, the analysis will prove that the election message constructed by presidents is based on the actions conducted in the various areas of urban policy.

with the transition to the new post-industrial information and knowledge economy. Throughout the early 2000s Malmö, in parallel with other cities, sought to reinvent itself using tools such as place marketing, water front development and investments in tourism and the events industry ( Dannestam 2011 ). The aim was, as in many other cities, to attract investments and new inhabitants to the city. As we know from the literature on urban renewal many of these former industrial cities are characterised by growing inequalities (cf. Schiller and Çağlar 2011 ; Fainstein

: Profile brochure. Hjørring Municipality (2002b) Hjørring som mærkevare. Disse er ordene. Hjørring: Manual. Jensen, Tina Knudsen (2002) ‘De tretten landeveje’, Historisk Aarbog fra Randers Amt, pp. 15-22. Kotler, P. (1984) Marketing Management. Englewood Cliffs N.J: Prentice Hall. Kotler, P.; Haider, D.H. and Rein, I. (1993) Marketing Places. NY: The Free Press. Langer, Roy (2001) Place Images and Place Marketing. (2001) Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School (working paper, Vol. 2001-03). Lash, S. and Urry, J. (1994) ‘Accumulating signs’, in Economies of Signs and Space

Marketing Management, 29 (9–10) (2013): 1079–1098. Braun, E., Kavaratzis, M., Zenker, S. “My city – my brand: the different roles of residents in place branding.” Journal of Place Management and Development, 6 (1) (2013): 18–28. Castells, M. Społeczeństwo sieci . Warszawa: PWN, 2011. Eshuis, J., Braun, E., Klijn, E.-H. “Place Marketing as Governance Strategy: An Assessment of Obstacles in Place Marketing and Their Effects on Attracting Target Groups.” Public Administration Review , Vol. 73, Issue 3 (May/June 2013): 507–16. Eshuis, J., Klijn, E-H., Braun, E. “Place

-2020 (Development Strategy for the Municipality of Chełmno for the Years 2014-2020 - in Polish). Available at: http://www.bip.chelmno.pl/bip_download.php?id=6324 (DoA: 16.06.2017). Strategia rozwoju gminy miasto Płońsk na lata 2015-2020 (Development Strategy for the Municipality of Płońsk for the Years 2015-2020 - in Polish). Warszawa: Europejski Instytut Marketingu Miejsc: BEST PLACE (Warsaw: European Place Marketing Institute: BEST PLACE - in Polish). Available at: http://umplonsk.bip.org.pl/pliki/umgplonsk/xxix_220_2016_strategia_2015-2020.pdf (DoA: 16.06.2017). Strategia

: Urban Studies, Vol. 38, pp. 1003-1024. Nel, E. and Binns, T., 2002a: Decline and Response in South Africa’s Free State Goldfields: Local Economic Development in Matjhabeng. In: Third World Planning Review, Vol. 24, pp. 249-269. Nel E. and Binns, T., 2002b: Place Marketing, Tourism Promotion and Community-based Local Economic Development in Post-apartheid South Africa: The Case of Still Bay - the “Bay of Sleeping Beauty”. In: Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 32, pp. 184-208. Nel, E. and Binns, T, 2003: Putting ’Developmental Local Government’ into Practice: The Experience of

applied to tourist management and planning” ( Beeton and Benfield, 2002 : 497). The same authors are strong advocators of demarketing in tourism, stating: “The implications (of demarketing strategy) for the tourism industry are enormous, providing fresh ways to consider the management of mass tourism and the environment and culture on which it relies.” ( Beeton and Benfield, 2002 : 497). On the other hand, Medway and Warnaby declare that their work “provides a unique counter to the ‘conventional wisdom’ of place marketing by introducing the concept of place demarketing