Vincenza Precone, Munis Dundar, Tommaso Beccari, Eda Tahir Turanli, Stefano Cecchin, Giuseppe Marceddu, Elena Manara and Matteo Bertelli
be affected by a greater or lesser extent of error. The preanalytical phase comprises test selection and specimen collection, processing, handling, and delivery to the testing site; the analytic phase includes selection of test methods, performance of test procedures, monitoring and verification of the accuracy and reliability of test results, and documentation of test findings; The postanalytical phase includes reporting test results and archiving records, reports, and tested specimens ( 7 ). Errors are very likely to emerge during the pre-analytical phase and
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38. Raghavan V, Bollmann P, S. Jung G. A critical investigation of recall and precision as measures of retrieval system performance. ACM Trans Inf Syst. 1989;7(3):205–29.
39. Matthews BW. Comparison of the predicted and observed
´s interior since eons. After the use of biopolymers, they undergo biodegradation and composting by the metabolism of living organisms, which generates biomass and CO 2 ; CO 2 , in turn, gets fixed again by the photosynthetic performance of green plants to rebuild the renewable feedstocks originally used for biopolymer synthesis, which closes the cycle of anabolism and catabolism of biopolymer feedstocks. This differs drastically from the life-cycle processes of petrochemical plastics, the thermal degradation of which results in a misbalance of CO 2 through combustion
supplied without correspondence with the outputs (y) ( 10 ). In this case, the goal is to find hidden patterns or intrinsic structures that have been provided in the data. Through this process, it is possible to make inferences regarding data without having an exact answer and a supervisor to correct possible errors ( 11 ).
Reinforcement learning : Reinforcement learning differs from the supervised method in that there is no supervisor; hence, the model is based on the reward (measured as the evaluation of the achievied performance) ( 12 ). Based on this signal, the
Peter M. Eze, Joy C. Nnanna, Ugochukwu Okezie, Happiness S. Buzugbe, Chika C. Abba, Chidimma R. Chukwunwejim, Festus B. C. Okoye and Charles O. Esimone
extracts using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Materials and Methods
Isolation of endophytic fungus, fermentation and extraction of metabolites
Fresh leaves of Newbouldia laevis, Ocimum gratissimum , and Carica papaya were collected from Agulu, Anambra State, Nigeria. Isolation of endophytic fungi from the plant leaves was carried out as described by Eze et al . ( 40 ). The plant leaves were washed thoroughly in running tap water and then cut into small fragments (about 1 cm 2 ). The leaf fragments were surface-sterilized by immersion in 2
Rukiye Nur Kaçmaz, Bülent Yılmaz, Mehmet Sait Dündar and Serkan Doğan
images with no artifact (clear) was tried automatically. Experts have to select among all the videos and images that are clear and after this process is completed they have to decide on the disease type. Deciding clear images visually has two main drawbacks: Firstly, this process is time-consuming for the experts in a highly busy daily schedule, and secondly, since the decisions are subjective and dependent on the experts’ performance, human factors such as fatigue, sleepiness or lack of experience may negatively affect the accuracy of clear images and disease
, Ranger Russet and Atlantic varieties, which contain only wild and cultivated potato genes, have received US Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration and Environmental Protection Agency clearance, for growth and sale in the United States, as well as from Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency ( 23 ). Marketing consents for import of Innate potatoes are currently being pursued in at least a further eight different countries. 20 years on since the first biotechnology potato, the future use of biotechnology to enhance potato performance and provide
Balázs József Nagy, Magdolna Makó, István Erdélyi, Andrea Ramirez, Jonathan Moncada, Iris Vural Gursel, Ana Ruiz-Martínez, Aurora Seco, José Ferrer, Fabian Abiusi, Hans Reith, Lambertus A.M. van den Broek, Jordan Seira, Diana Garcia-Bernet, Jean-Philippe Steyer and Miklós Gyalai-Korpos
mechanically remove solid materials, followed by the secondary treatment to reduce organic matter and nutrients. Tertiary treatment may be also applied to polish the effluent. These steps are referred as the water line, while the usual aerated activated sludge mechanism as secondary treatment results in sludge to be managed in the sludge line.
WWTPs are focusing on the water line as that delivers clean water which is the main performance and legal indicator; improvement of the sludge line by means of energy and cost efficiency, as well as its environmental performance is
silage. Whey retentate was particularly selected for this study to complement the excellent performance of the strain in producing PHAs from whey permeate as carbon source ( 16 , 17 ); using both the permeate and the retentate fraction in a PHA production process would pave the way towards a complete utilization of the surplus material whey, which, due to its high (bio)chemical oxygen demand, currently poses environmental threats when disposed as waste into aquatic environments ( 29 ). In addition, this new application of whey retentate for PHA biosynthesis can be
Evgeni Eltzov, Abri Lavena De Cesarea, ‘Yuen Kei Adarina Low and Robert S. Marks
In the next section, we will describe some conventional methodologies and biosensor techniques are used to determine the IAQ, including the use of genotoxicant bioreporters.
Conventional and biosensor techniques for indoor pollutant detection
In the previous section, we have identified a list of indoor pollutants that can negatively affect human health and requires monitoring. Various biological, physical and chemical sensors are continuously being developed for this purpose. Four key parameters are usually used to evaluate a sensor’s performance