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Progress of research on the immune tolerance of chronic HBV infection

infections [ 1 ]. The risk of chronic infection of neonates infected with HBV during the perinatal period is as high as 80%–90% [ 1 ]. In this regard, some scholars believe that different performances are due to different host immune status after HBV infection in different age groups. The causes of chronic HBV infection are believed to be multifaceted, including multiple factors, and are mainly related to the immune tolerance of the body to HBV, high HBV DNA load, HBV mutation, untimely or irregular treatment, and so on. The immune tolerance of the body to HBV is the

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Correlation between the Insertion/Deletion Mutations of Prion Protein Gene and BSE Susceptibility and Milk Performance in Dairy Cows

Abstract

Objective To investigate the 23 bp and 12 bp insertion/deletion (indel) mutations within the bovine prion protein (PRNP) gene in Chinese dairy cows, and to detect the associations of two indel mutations with BSE susceptibility and milk performance.

Methods Based on bovine PRNP gene sequence, two pairs of primers for testing the 23 bp and 12 bp indel mutations were designed. The PCR amplification and agarose electrophoresis were carried out to distinguish the different genotypes within the mutations. Moreover, based on previous data from other cattle breeds and present genotypic and allelic frequencies of two indels mutations in this study, the corrections between the two indel mutations and BSE susceptibility were tested, as well as the relationships between the mutations and milk performance traits were analyzed in this study based on the statistical analyses.

Results In the analyzed Chinese Holstein population, the frequencies of two “del” alleles in 23 bp and 12 bp indel muations were more frequent. The frequency of haplotype of 23del-12del was higher than those of 23del- 12ins and 23ins-12del. From the estimated r2 and D’ values, two indel polymorphisms were linked strongly in the Holstein population (D’ = 57.5%, r2 = 0.257). Compared with the BSE-affected cattle populations from the reported data, the significant differences of genotypic and allelic frequencies were found among present Holstein and some BSE-affected populations (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Similarly, there were significant frequency distribution differences of genotypes and alleles among Chinese Holstein and several previous reported healthy dairy cattle (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Moreover, association of genotype and combined genotypes of two indel polymorphisms with milk performance and resistant mastitis traits were analyzed in Holstein population, but no significant differences were found (P > 0.05).

Conclusions These observations revealed that the influence of two indel mutations within the bovine PRNP gene on BSE depended on the breed and they did not affect the milk production traits, which layed the foundation for future selection of resistant animals, and for improving health conditions for dairy breeding against BSE in China.

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Research Progress on Diagnosis Methods for Fungal Infection

Microbiology. 2010, 48(4):1231-40. 26 Rickerts V, Khot PD, Myerson Da, et al . Comparison of quantitative real time PCR with Sequencing and ribosomal RNA-FISH for the identification of fungi in formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2011(11):201-13. 27 Babouee FB, Weisser M, Prince SS, et al . Performances of two different panfungal PCRs to detect mould DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue: what are the limiting factors?. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2014(14):692. 28 Buitrago MJ, Bernal-Martinez L, Castelli MV

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Review of Research on the Prevention of HPV Infection and Cervical Cancer

. Comparison of the clinical performance of carcinogenic HPV typing of the Linear Array and Papillocheck HPV-screening assay. J Clin Virol, 2010, 47(1): 38-42. 5 Ramogola-Masire D, McGrath CM, Barnhart KT, et al . Subtype Distribution of human papillomavirus in HIV-infected women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stages 2 and 3 in Botswana. Int J Gynecol Pathol, 2011, 30(6): 591-596. 6 Kjaer SK, Breugelmans G, Munk C, et al . Population-based prevalence, type- and age-specific distribution of HPV in women before introduction of an HPV-vaccination program

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Recent Progress in Diagnosis Methods for Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Its Clinical Applications

skin test for diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Clin Microbiol, 2006, 44(6):1944-1950. 9 Peng Z, Zhu CM. Research progress of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RD1. Chongqing Med, 2011, 40(1):89-98. 10 Hougardy JM, Schepers K, Place S, et al. Heparin-binding-hemagglutinin-induced INF-gamma release as a diagnostic tool for latent tuberculosis. PLoS One, 2007, 2(10): e926. 11 Brock I, Munk ME, Kok-Jensen A, et al . Performance of whole blood IFN-γ test for tuberculosis diagnosis based on PPD or the specific antigens ESAT-6 and

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The Serum NT-proBNP in Patients with Cirrhosis: Relationship to Cardiac Dysfunction and Liver Function

References 1. Kowalski HJ, Abelmann WH. The cardiac output at rest in Laennec cirrhosis. J Clin Invest 1953;32:1025-1033. 2. Kelbaek H, Eriksen J, Brynjolf I, Raboel A, Lund JO, Munck O, et al. Cardiac performance in patients with asymptomatic alcoholic cirrhosis of liver. Am J Cardiol 1984;54:852-855. 3. Ruiz-del-Arbol L, Monescillo A, Arocena C, Valer P, Ginès P, Moreira V, et al. Circulatory function and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. Hepatology 2005;42:439-447. 4. Bernal V, Pascual I

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Characterization of Imipenem Unsusceptible Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolates from Inpatients without Carbapenem Treatment

, Hanson ND. Emergence of carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a patient with cystic fibrosis in the absence of carbapenem therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:e137-141. 7. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Seventeenth Informational Supplement M100-S19. CLSI, Wayne, PA, USA:2009. 8. Pitout JD, Chow BL, Gregson DB, Laupland KB, Elsayed S, Church DL. Molecular epidemiology of metallo-beta-lactamaseproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the

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Early Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus Quasispecies During IFN-α Treatment

. Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 2011;28(10):2731-2739. 14. Guindon S, Dufayard JF, Lefort V, Anisimova M, Hordijk W, Gascuel O. New algorithms and methods to estimate maximumlikelihood phylogenies: assessing the performance of PhyML 3.0. Syst Biol 2010;59(3):307-321. 15. Darriba D, Taboada GL, Doallo R, Posada D. jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel

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In vitro activity of allicin combined with two antibiotics on intestinal Shigella

reduce adverse reactions. Allicin is a compound isolated from garlic. Its chemical name is 2-allyl sulfo sulfinic acid propyl ester. Allicin is present in garlic in the form of its precursor alliin, which – under the action of alliin lyase – produces allicin with a pungent flavor [ 2 ]. It is a natural antibiotic and has good biological performance, immune regulation function, and less adverse reactions, with no antigenicity [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. It can inhibit the common bacteria, fungi, viruses, and even parasites [ 6 ]. In this experiment, single use of allicin in vitro

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Research progress on anti-infection therapy for sepsis in children

. Honarmand A.R. Boreiri M. Mehrvarz A. Effect of door-to-antibiotic time on mortality of patients with sepsis in emergency department: a prospective cohort study Acta Med. Iran. 2013 51 7 454 460 [23] Ferrer R., Martin-Loeches I., Phillips G., Osborn T.M., Townsend S., Dellinger R.P., et al., Empiric antibiotic treatment reduces mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock from the first hour: results from a guideline-based performance improvement program, Crit. Care Med., 2014, 42(8), 1749-1755. 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000330 Ferrer R. Martin-Loeches I. Phillips G. Osborn

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