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Optimization of Aerobic Exercise Protocols in Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Trial

Abstract

Background and Aims: diabetes mellitus one of the non-communicable disorders which is spreading globally irrespective of nation being developed or developing. The aim of this study was to optimize the exercise protocols and to find the efficacy of these protocols on glucose control, balance, gait and proprioception in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Material and Methods: 40 individuals with type 2 DM with age 35 to 60 were randomly allotted to four groups with 10 subjects in each. Cycle ergometer based aerobic exercises were given with duration of 20 or 30 minutes twice or thrice weekly for 6 weeks. Pre and post intervention was collected using Fullerton Advanced Balance scale for balance, spatiotemporal gait parameters for gait, Continuous passive motion for Proprioception and High Performance Liquid Chromatography in the laboratory.

Results: data was analysed using Design Expert software. Full factorial design was used to compare role of duration and frequency of exercise on each patient. The results showed significant effect of exercises on balance, gait, proprioception and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c).

Conclusion: Aerobic exercises if given for 30 minutes and thrice weekly can show a significant improvement in complications in Diabetics.

Open access
The impact of arterial stiffness on cognitive status in elderly diabetic patients

Abstract

With age, arteries become more rigid and pulse waves propagate faster. The pathogenic mechanisms that causes vascular stiffness in type 2 diabetes are complex but incompletely understood. An important element in the development of this phenomenon appears to be insulin resistance. One of the first line health problems that persist in the present is the failure to detect cardiovascular diseases in the preclinical stage which is important since more frequent cardiac events (myocardial infarction, sudden death) occur in people without obvious cardiovascular pathology in the medical history. One of the degenerative diseases with the greatest impact on the autonomy is dementia of elderly people. Recent studies have shown the association and even the possible involvement of cardiovascular risk factors and arterial stiffness in the pathogenesis of dementia and cognitive impairment. Although pulse wave velocity in the aorta is related to subclinical coronary atherosclerosis (being an important biomarker of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic individuals), arterial stiffness is also a predictor of cognitive performance, cognitive decline or dementia.

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The Influence of Weight Loss on Arterial Stiffness in Obese and Overweight Subjects

loss with or without exercise training on large artery compliance in healthy obese men. J Hypertens 17: 1831-1835, 1999. 12. Aucott L, Poobalan A, Smith WC, Avenell A, Jung R, Broom J. Effects of weight loss in overweight/obese individuals and long-term hypertension outcomes : A Systematic Review. Hypertension 45: 1035-1041, 2005. 13. Elobeid MA, Padilla MA, McVie T et al. Missing data in randomized clinical trials for weight loss: scope of the problem, state of the field, and performance of statistical methods. PLoS ONE 4: e

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Assessment of Cardiac Autonomic Function by Post Exercise Heart Rate Recovery in Diabetics

vaccination on platelet activation and cardiac autonomic function. J Intern Med 269: 118-125, 2011. 13. Bruce RA, Pearson R, Lovejoy Jr. FW, Yu PNG, Brothers GB. Variability of respiratory and circulatory performance during standardized exercise. J Clin Invest 28: 1431–1438, 1949. 14. Watanabe J, Thamilarasan M, Blackstone EH, Thomas JD, Lauer MS. Heart rate recovery immediately after treadmill exercise and left ventricular systolic dysfunction as predictors of mortality: the case of stress echocardiography. Circulation 104: 1911-1916, 2001. 15

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Cognitive Disorders, Depressive Status and Chronic Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

. Relationships between hyperglycemia and cognitive performance among adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 28: 71-77, 2005. 6. Cukierman-Yaffe T, Gerstein HC, Williamson JD et al. Relationship between baseline glycemic control and cognitive function in individuals with type 2 diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors: the action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes-memory in diabetes (ACCORD-MIND) trial. Diabetes Care 32: 221-226, 2009. 7. Lam RW. Introduction. In: Depression. Lam RW (ed). Oxford University Press

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Evaluation of Cognitive Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Overt Hypothyroidism

–818, 2004. 10. Hogervorst E, Huppert F, Matthews FE, Brayne C. Thyroid function and cognitive decline in the MRC funded cognitive function and ageing study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 33: 1013–1022, 2008. 11. van Boxtel MPJ, Menheere PPCA, Bekers O, Hogervorst E, Jolles J. Thyroid function, depressed mood, and cognitive performance in older individuals: the Maastricht aging study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29: 891–898, 2004. 12. Umegaki H. Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for cognitive impairment: current insights. Clin Interv Aging 9: 1011

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Effect of Masticatory Forces Transmitted by Dental Implants on the Mandibular Bone of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

normal occlusion using FEA. Altair Technology Conference, India, 2013. 11. Boven GC, Raghoebar GM, Vissink A, Meijer HJ. Improving masticatory performance, bite force, nutritional state and patient's satisfaction with implant overdentures: a systematic review of the literature. J Oral Rehabil 42: 220-233, 2015. 12. Kaul AS, Goyal D. Bite force comparison of implant-retained mandibular overdentures with conventional complete dentures: an in vivo study. International Journal of Oral Implantology & Clinical Research 2: 140-144, 2011

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Hepatic fibrosis, measured by fibroscan in a group of patients with obesity

, Marcellin P, Dhumeaux D, Trinchet JC, Beaugrand M. Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis by measurement of stiffness in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology , 41(1): 48-54, 2005. 8. Friedrich-Rust M, Ong MF, Martens S, Sarrazin C, Bojunga J, Zeuzem S, Herrmann E: Performance of transient elastography for the staging of liver fibrosis: a meta-analysis . Gastroenterology 134(4): 960-74. 2008. 9. M Yoneda, K Fujita, M Inamori, A Nakajima, M Yoneda, M Tamano, and H Hiraishi. Transient elastography in patients with non

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Non Nutritive Sweeteners - Current Perspective

R eferences 1. Bermúdez Menéndez de la Granda M, Sinclair AJ . Fatty acids and obesity. Curr Pharm De 15: 4117–4125, 2009. 2. Zygler A, Wasik A, Kot-Wasik AK, Namiesnik J . Determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners in various foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Anal Bioanal Chem 400: 2159–2172, 2011. 3. Unwin N, Whiting D, Guariguata L, Ghyoot G, Gan D (Eds) . International Diabetes Federation, Diabetes Atlas. Fifth Edition, International Diabetes Federation, Brussels, Belgium:11–74. 2011

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Apolipoproteins: Good Markers for Cardiovacular Risk in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Dyslipidemia

. Endocr Pract 1: 1-78, 2012. 17. Eknoyan G, Lameire N, Eckardt K-U et al. KDIGO 2012 Clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Accessed at: http://www.kidney-international.org. 18. Levey AS, Stevens LA, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 150: 604-612, 2009. 19. Roberts WL. CDC/AHA Workshop on markers of iInflammation and cardiovascular disease: Application to clinical and public health practice: laboratory tests available to assess inflammation-performance and

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